Survey of birds of the world
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SURVEY OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD. Subclass Ornithurae Infraclass Odontornithes = toothed birds (extinct) Infraclass Neornithes Superorder Paleognathae (Ratites and Tinamous) Superorder Neognathae. Avian Phylogeny based on Feduccia (1995). Superorder Paleognathae.

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SURVEY OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD

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Survey of birds of the world

SURVEY OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD

  • Subclass Ornithurae

    • Infraclass Odontornithes = toothed birds (extinct)

    • Infraclass Neornithes

      • Superorder Paleognathae (Ratites and Tinamous)

      • Superorder Neognathae


Survey of birds of the world

Avian Phylogeny based on Feduccia (1995)


Superorder paleognathae

Superorder Paleognathae

  • Order Struthioniformes = Ostrich, 1 spp., Africa

    • flightless walking birds

    • long heavy legs with 2 toes

    • over 2.2 m tall

  • Order Rheiformes = Rheas, 2 spp., South America

    • flightless walking birds

    • long heavy legs with 3 toes

    • 1.5 m tall


Survey of birds of the world

Ostrich - 1 spp., Africa

Rheas - 2 spp., S. America


Superorder paleognathae1

Superorder Paleognathae

  • Order Casuariiformes - Cassowaries and Emus; flightless walking birds, stout legs with 3 toes, up to 1.5 m tall, feathers with long aftershaft

    • Cassowaries - 3 spp., Australia and New Guinea

    • Emus - 2 spp., Australia


Survey of birds of the world

Emu - 2 spp., Australia

Cassowary - 3 species

Australia and New Guinea


Superorder paleognathae2

Superorder Paleognathae

  • Order Dinornithiformes - Kiwis, 3 spp., New Zealand

    • flightless, chicken-sized

    • long bill with nostrils at tip

    • hair-like feathers

  • Order Tinamiformes - Tinamous, 47 spp., Central and South America

    • flying, ground birds

    • plump body, slender neck with small heads


Survey of birds of the world

Brown Kiwi - New Zealand

3 species all, N.Z.

Chilean Tinamou - S.Am.

Tinamous - 47 spp., C. and

S. America


Superorder neognathae

Superorder Neognathae

  • Order Podicipediformes - Grebes, 21 spp., world-wide

    • lobate toes, divers

  • Order Sphenisciformes - Penguins, 17 spp., S. hemisphere

    • web-footed marine swimmers

    • wings modified to form paddles

    • scale-like feathers

    • range as far north as Galapagos Islands (equator)


Survey of birds of the world

Magellanic Penguins

southern S. America


Superorder neognathae1

Superorder Neognathae

  • Order Procellariiformes - Pelagic Tubenoses, 115 spp., world-wide

    • tubular nostrils, hooked beak, long narrow wings

  • Order Pelecaniformes - Pelicans and allies, 67 spp., world-wide: mostly tropical and subtropical except cormorants

    • totipalmate feet, long fish-eating beaks

  • Order Anseriformes - Waterfowl, 161 spp., world-wide

    • broad bills, short legs with webbed feet, swimmers


Survey of birds of the world

Northern Fulmar

Black-footed Albatross

Procellariiformes - 115 species, Worldwide distribution


Superorder neognathae2

Superorder Neognathae

  • Order Phoenicopteriformes - Flamingos, 5 spp., Tropics except Australia

    • long-legged, long-necked wading birds with webbed feet and specialized filter-feeding bill, pink coloration

  • Order Ciconiiformes - Herons, Storks, Ibises. 120 spp., world-wide

    • long-necked, long-legged waders

  • Order Falconiformes - Hawks and allies, 311 spp., world-wide

    • diurnal birds of prey, strong hooked bill, talons


Survey of birds of the world

Chilean Flamingo

- Southern S. America

  • Puna Flamingo

  • High Andes of Peru,

  • Chile and Argentina


Superorder neognathae3

Superorder Neognathae

  • Order Galliformes - Chicken-like birds, 258 spp., world-wide

    • short rounded wings, heavy bodies, heavy feet for scratching, strong runners

  • Order Gruiformes - Cranes, Rails and allies, 213 spp., world-wide

    • Wide variation: some long-legged and long-necked, others smaller with shorter legs and necks, waders

  • Order Charadriiformes - Shorebirds, Gulls and Terns, 366 spp., world-wide

    • strong fliers, many long-distance migrants, toes usually webbed


Superorder neognathae4

Superorder Neognathae

  • Order Gaviiformes - Loons, 5 spp., Northern N. hemisphere

    • webbed feet, divers, long bodies, sharp bills

  • Order Columbiformes - Pigeons and Doves, 313 spp., world-wide

    • short legs, short neck, plump bodies

  • Order Psittaciformes - Parrots, 358 spp., tropical and subtropical

    • narrow hooked beak, zygodactyl feet, large rounded head


Superorder neognathae5

Superorder Neognathae

  • Order Coliiformes - Mousebirds, 6 spp., Africa

    • small, crested, gray or brown birds with long tails, first and fourth toes are reversible, mainly frugivorous and travel in flocks

  • Order Musophagiformes - Turacos, 23 spp., Africa

    • medium-sized arboreal birds, superficially resemble slim chicken with a long tail, mostly vegetarian diet

  • Order Cuculiformes - Cuckoos and allies, 143 spp., world-wide

    • zygodactyl feet with reversible outer toe, many are brood parasites


Survey of birds of the world

Mousebird - Africa, 6 spp.

Turaco - Africa, 23 spp.


Superorder neognathae6

Superorder Neognathae

  • OrderStrigiformes - Owls, 178 spp., world-wide

    • nocturnal birds of prey, large eyes, powerful hooked beak and talons

  • Order Caprimulgiformes - Nightjars and allies, 113 spp., world-wide

    • cryptic plumage, wide mouths with insect-netting bristles, small legs and feet, crepuscular or nocturnal

  • Order Apodiformes - Hummingbirds and Swifts, 422 spp., world-wide: Hummers in C. & S. Am.

    • small birds with short legs and small feet, pointed wings; swifts with short, weak bills; Hummers with long, slender bills


Announcements

Announcements

  • Lab Exam 1 – next Wednesday Feb. 10

    • Topography through Waterfowl (Labs 1-3)

    • A couple questions from the videos

  • Lecture Exam 1 – moved from Wed. Feb 17 to Monday Feb. 22

    • Will cover material through Circulation and Respiration


Superorder neognathae7

Superorder Neognathae

  • Order Trogoniformes - Trogons, 39 spp., Tropical regions (greatest diversity in Neotropics)

    • short stout bill, small weak zygodactyl feet, long tails, richly colored irridescent plumage

  • Order Coraciiformes - Kingfishers, Motmots, Bee-eaters, Hornbills, 218 spp.,world-wide

    • strong prominent bills, colorful plumage, cavity-nesters, toes 3 & 4 joined at base

  • Order Piciformes - Woodpeckers, Toucans and allies, 410 spp., world-wide

    • zygodactyl feet, highly specialized bills, cavity-nesters


Survey of birds of the world

Resplendent Quetzal

Elegant Trogon

Trogoniformes - Trogons, 39 spp., Tropical regions


Survey of birds of the world

Bee-eater

(Old World)

Tody

(West Indies)

Hoopoe

(Europe, Africa)

Hornbill

(Africa)

Motmot

(New World Tropics)

Coraciiformes - 218 species, worldwide distribution


Survey of birds of the world

Barbet

(Tropics)

Jacamar

(New World Tropics)

Toucan

(New World Tropics)

Puffbird

(New World Tropics)

Perching Piciformes


Other classification schemes place

Other Classification Schemes place:

  • Some classification schemes place Sandgrouse in their own Order Pteroclidiformes or with the Orders Columbiformes or Charadriiformes.

    • There are 16 spp. in Asia and Africa, inhabit plains and deserts. Superficially they appear pigeon-like.

  • The traditional classification schemes have placed flamingos in the Ciconiiformes along with the herons, storks, and ibises.

  • Some classification schemes split hummingbirds and swifts into separate Orders, Trochiliformes and Apodiformes, respectively.


Survey of birds of the world

Sandgrouse - 16 spp., Asia and Africa plains and deserts


Superorder neognathae8

Superorder Neognathae

  • Order Passeriformes - Songbirds (Perching birds), about 5700 spp. (> 50% of all birds), world-wide

  • Divided into primitive Suboscine Suborder (Tyranni) and advanced Oscine Suborder (Passeres) - Oscines with better vocalizations because of highly developed syrinx

  • Feet adapted for perching (3 in front, 1 in back)

  • Wing with 9 or 10 primaries

  • Unique palate and sperm structure

  • Very altricial hatchlings


Songbird classification

Songbird Classification

  • Two main divisions:

    • Primitive Suboscines

    • Advanced Oscines

  • Primitive Suboscine songbird group dominant in South America

  • Advanced Oscine songbird group outcompetes Suboscines and are dominant everywhere else


Research project

Research Project

  • Why are Suboscines dominant in South America?

    • South America isolated from other continents

Suggested dispersal routes of main

passerine groups from Gondwana

Ericson et al. 2003. J. Avian Biol. 34:3-15


Research project1

Research Project

  • Why do Oscines outcompete Suboscines?

    • One hypothesis = Metabolic Capacity Hypothesis = Suboscines have “restrictive tropical physiology” (Feduccia 1999)

  • Tested hypothesis by measuring max MR in cold

    • Prediction: If hypothesis valid, Oscines should have higher MR than Suboscines

  • Why Chile? – High proportion of Suboscines and temperate climate


Survey of birds of the world

Oscines with significantly higher MR

- Supports metabolic rate hypothesis

Oscine Slope = 0.67, R2=0.762

Suboscine Slope = 0.84, R2=0.729


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