Evidence for evolution
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Evidence for Evolution. A slide extravaganza…. Types of evidence…. 1. Evidence from the fossil record (dead things). Fossil formation. Bones and shells undergo mineral replacement and are turned into rock

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Evidence for Evolution

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Evidence for evolution

Evidence for Evolution

A slide extravaganza…


Types of evidence

Types of evidence…

  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record (dead things)


Fossil formation

Fossil formation

  • Bones and shells undergo mineral replacement and are turned into rock

  • Soft material either disappears, or leaves an impression in the earth (that turns to rock)


A selection of fossils

A selection of fossils…


Fossils show transitions

Fossils show transitions

The Archaeopterix -- between reptile and bird


Scallops

Scallops


From early to modern horse

From early to modern horse


Living things show transitions too

(Living things show transitions too)


Coelacanths the living fossil

Coelacanths - “the living fossil”


Types of evidence1

Types of evidence…

  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record


Types of evidence2

Types of evidence…

  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record

  • 2. Comparative Anatomy


A homologous structures

A. Homologous Structures

Homo - logy

Homologous structures have the same underlying forms


Wing anatomy comparison

Wing anatomy comparison

And compared to our arm…


Arm anatomy comparison

Arm anatomy comparison


B analogous structures

B. Analogous Structures

Ana - logy

Analogous structures have a similar outward appearance (but different underlying forms)


Types of evolution

Convergent evolution Distantly related organisms evolve similar external features

Divergent evolution

A common ancestor gives rise to organisms that evolve for different environments

Types of evolution


Which goes with which

Homologous structures

Analogous structures

Convergent evolutionDistantly related organisms evolve similar external features

Divergent evolution

A common ancestor gives rise to organisms that become more different with time.

Which goes with which? ….


Which goes with which1

Homologous structures

Analogous structures

Convergent evolutionDistantly related organisms evolve similar external features

Divergent evolution

A common ancestor gives rise to organisms that become more different with time.

Which goes with which?


C vestigial structures

C. Vestigial Structures

Vestige - a left-over/ remnant

Vestigial structures are evolutionary “leftovers” from an earlier ancestor


The dew claw of a wild cat

The “dew” claw of a wild cat


The human appendix

The human appendix

Fetal Human

Rabbit

Adult Human


Membranes in our eyes

Membranes in our eyes


Hip bones in whales

Hip bones in whales

(Look at that “hand” too!)


Types of evidence3

Types of evidence…

  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record

  • 2. Comparative Anatomy


Types of evidence4

Types of evidence…

  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record

  • 2. Comparative Anatomy

  • 3. Comparative Embryology


Human embryo at 5 weeks

Human embryo at 5 weeks


Embryos

Embryos…

…can you guess which one is human?


Embryos1

Embryos…

…how about now?


And now

And now…

Were you right?


Types of evidence5

Types of evidence…

  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record

  • 2. Comparative Anatomy

  • 3. Comparative Embryology


Types of evidence6

Types of evidence…

  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record

  • 2. Comparative Anatomy

  • 3. Comparative Embryology

  • 4. Molecular Evidence


Comparing dna

Comparing DNA…


Determining relationships

Determining relationships

DNA similarity between species is used to determine how closely related they are.

This is in turn used to construct possible evolutionary trees.


How closely related are these fellows

How closely related are these fellows?

Mystery critter! (I’m not telling)

Brown Bear

…got your guess?

Giant Panda


An evolutionary tree

An Evolutionary Tree

This tree was constructed by looking at % similarity of DNA among “bears”

…so why is he called a red panda?


Types of evidence7

Types of evidence…

  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record

  • 2. Comparative Anatomy

  • 3. Comparative Embryology

  • 4. Molecular Evidence


Types of evidence8

Types of evidence…

  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record

  • 2. Comparative Anatomy

  • 3. Comparative Embryology

  • 4. Molecular Evidence

  • 5. Behavior


Behavioral similarities

Behavioral similarities

  • Duck and other bird mating dances

  • How primates carry their young

  • Fish swimming motions and salamander walks

  • And on and on and on….


Types of evidence9

Types of evidence…

  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record

  • 2. Comparative Anatomy

  • 3. Comparative Embryology

  • 4. Molecular Evidence

  • 5. Behavior


Types of evidence10

Types of evidence…

  • 1. Evidence from the Fossil Record

  • 2. Comparative Anatomy

  • 3. Comparative Embryology

  • 4. Molecular Evidence

  • 5. Behavior

  • 6. Direct observation

    • also known as microevolution


Artificial selection

Artificial selection

Remember us?


And look at us

And look at us!


And natural selection

And Natural Selection

Hawaiian Rock Wallabies!


The beak of the finch

The Beak of the Finch

  • Biologists Peter and Rosemary Grant documented natural selection occurring in populations of finches on the Galapagos islands over a period of only 20 years! This generation to generation changes in the frequency of certain traits is called microevolution.


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