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Evidence for Evolution. A slide extravaganza…. Types of evidence…. 1. Evidence from the fossil record (dead things). Fossil formation. Bones and shells undergo mineral replacement and are turned into rock

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evidence for evolution

Evidence for Evolution

A slide extravaganza…

types of evidence
Types of evidence…
  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record (dead things)
fossil formation
Fossil formation
  • Bones and shells undergo mineral replacement and are turned into rock
  • Soft material either disappears, or leaves an impression in the earth (that turns to rock)
fossils show transitions
Fossils show transitions

The Archaeopterix -- between reptile and bird

types of evidence1
Types of evidence…
  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record
types of evidence2
Types of evidence…
  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record
  • 2. Comparative Anatomy
a homologous structures
A. Homologous Structures

Homo - logy

Homologous structures have the same underlying forms

wing anatomy comparison
Wing anatomy comparison

And compared to our arm…

b analogous structures
B. Analogous Structures

Ana - logy

Analogous structures have a similar outward appearance (but different underlying forms)

types of evolution
Convergent evolution Distantly related organisms evolve similar external features

Divergent evolution

A common ancestor gives rise to organisms that evolve for different environments

Types of evolution
which goes with which
Homologous structures

Analogous structures

Convergent evolution Distantly related organisms evolve similar external features

Divergent evolution

A common ancestor gives rise to organisms that become more different with time.

Which goes with which? ….
which goes with which1
Homologous structures

Analogous structures

Convergent evolution Distantly related organisms evolve similar external features

Divergent evolution

A common ancestor gives rise to organisms that become more different with time.

Which goes with which?
c vestigial structures
C. Vestigial Structures

Vestige - a left-over/ remnant

Vestigial structures are evolutionary “leftovers” from an earlier ancestor

the human appendix
The human appendix

Fetal Human

Rabbit

Adult Human

hip bones in whales
Hip bones in whales

(Look at that “hand” too!)

types of evidence3
Types of evidence…
  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record
  • 2. Comparative Anatomy
types of evidence4
Types of evidence…
  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record
  • 2. Comparative Anatomy
  • 3. Comparative Embryology
embryos
Embryos…

…can you guess which one is human?

embryos1
Embryos…

…how about now?

and now
And now…

Were you right?

types of evidence5
Types of evidence…
  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record
  • 2. Comparative Anatomy
  • 3. Comparative Embryology
types of evidence6
Types of evidence…
  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record
  • 2. Comparative Anatomy
  • 3. Comparative Embryology
  • 4. Molecular Evidence
determining relationships
Determining relationships

DNA similarity between species is used to determine how closely related they are.

This is in turn used to construct possible evolutionary trees.

how closely related are these fellows
How closely related are these fellows?

Mystery critter! (I’m not telling)

Brown Bear

…got your guess?

Giant Panda

an evolutionary tree
An Evolutionary Tree

This tree was constructed by looking at % similarity of DNA among “bears”

…so why is he called a red panda?

types of evidence7
Types of evidence…
  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record
  • 2. Comparative Anatomy
  • 3. Comparative Embryology
  • 4. Molecular Evidence
types of evidence8
Types of evidence…
  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record
  • 2. Comparative Anatomy
  • 3. Comparative Embryology
  • 4. Molecular Evidence
  • 5. Behavior
behavioral similarities
Behavioral similarities
  • Duck and other bird mating dances
  • How primates carry their young
  • Fish swimming motions and salamander walks
  • And on and on and on….
types of evidence9
Types of evidence…
  • 1. Evidence from the fossil record
  • 2. Comparative Anatomy
  • 3. Comparative Embryology
  • 4. Molecular Evidence
  • 5. Behavior
types of evidence10
Types of evidence…
  • 1. Evidence from the Fossil Record
  • 2. Comparative Anatomy
  • 3. Comparative Embryology
  • 4. Molecular Evidence
  • 5. Behavior
  • 6. Direct observation
      • also known as microevolution
and natural selection
And Natural Selection

Hawaiian Rock Wallabies!

the beak of the finch
The Beak of the Finch
  • Biologists Peter and Rosemary Grant documented natural selection occurring in populations of finches on the Galapagos islands over a period of only 20 years! This generation to generation changes in the frequency of certain traits is called microevolution.
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