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DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT. THE GRADUAL EVOLUTION OF THE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT

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Development

DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT


THE GRADUAL EVOLUTION OF THE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT

During the seventeenthcenturythe developmentconceptwasborn. In thiscentury people thoghtthatonlyindustrializedcountriescouldbeconsidereddeveloped and thatcountriesthatdidn’t have industrial structureswereunderdeveloped.

In the eighteenthcenturyinstead people begantoclassify the countries in threeclasses:

  • FIRST WORLD: developedcountrieswith a capitalist economy

  • SECOND WORLD: industrializedcountrieswith a socialist economy

  • THIRD WORLD: the othercountrieswith fragile economies and theydependend on export of raw materials

    Today we talk about developed countries and developing countries often replaced by a distinction between north and south of the world


  • THE UNDERDEVELOPMENT CAUSES

  • There are several causes for which a country may be underdeveloped. We can group them in two categories :

  • NATURAL CAUSES

  • HUMAN CAUSES


Natural causes
NATURAL CAUSES

  • Bad climatic conditions

  • Unfavorable morphology

  • Low fertility

  • Unequal distribution of natural resources (like water, wood, minerals and raw materials)

  • Disproportion between population and available resources


Human causes
HUMAN CAUSES

  • Religious belifes

  • Cultural lifestyles

  • Colonial domination


Development a very complex system
DEVELOPMENT: A VERY COMPLEX SYSTEM

If we want to know exactly a development grade of a country is not enough to analyze only the economical indicators. We must take into account also the quality of the life. It has its effects on demographic indicators. In addition to demographic indicators, we must consider the environmental and health emergencies that anyway may slow the development.


For an exact calculation
FOR AN EXACT CALCULATION …

Indicatorofhumandevelopment (ISU)

The ISUwasfondedbyONU foranexactcalculationof a countrydevelopment.

ISUcalculates the developmentbased on fourpoints:

  • life expectancy

  • literacy rate

  • schooling rate

  • GDP per person

    ISU expressesthis data in decimalnumbers:

  • Over 0,800 is high development

  • Between 0,800 and 0,500 is medium development

  • Under 0,500 is low development


Development resources and environment
DEVELOPMENT, RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT

A recent calculation shows that the 80% of the resources on earth are used by developed countries. This is that the resources availeble to developing countries are only the 20%. This can easily be deducted that most of pollutants from the use of resources is produced by developed countries . This means that if developed countries don’t degree their resources utilization, the developing countries won’t increase their development grade.


The solution was found
THE SOLUTION WAS FOUND

Another problem in developing countries is the parallel growth of the population and the economy because the resources that must be used are for everyone the same. So two ideas were born:

  • In 1970 a group of philosophers said that the development must be stopped. But can we stop the development ?

  • In 1980 an organization introduced the concept of sustainable development


Sustainable development
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

With “sustainabledevelopment”, the organizationwantstosaythat the economicalgrowthmustbeaccompainedbyanincreaseof the qualityof the life.

Alsotheremustbeanequitabledistributionofresources. Forexample: anincreaseofenergyconsumptionofdevelopingcountriesmustcorrespondto a degreeof the energyconsumptionofdevelopedcountries. The equitable distribution of resources must also be valid in the future. So we must be sure that the future population will have the same amount of resources that we have had.


Realizzato da Riccardo Battistelli

Febbraio 2014

Commento audio STING, Fragile …like the world


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