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OB Optional Exam 4 SLIDES. TOPIC AFFECTIVE EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT. Positive AEC : I come to work to further my career success. What does my org have to do to keep me? C areer mobility + internal locus of control. Negative AEC : I come to work because I need the money.

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OB Optional Exam 4 SLIDES

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OB Optional Exam 4 SLIDES



Positive AEC:

  • I come to work to further my career success.

  • What does my org have to do to keep me?

  • Career mobility + internal locus of control

Negative AEC:

  • I come to work because I need the money.

  • I have to keep this job, because I don’t know where I’ll get another one as good.

  • External locus of control

Your positive or negative bias toward co-workers based on:

  • How “simpatico” they are with you: similar ambitions & skills

  • Mutual back-scratching potential (how much you can do for each other)

ATTCON professional relationships can stimulate high productivity & success, but sometimes result in: favoritism (“teacher’s pet” syndrome); “Don’t rock the boat”; “Don’t ask or tell”; exploitative relationships.



Your perception of what causes people’s behavior and outcomes in life




  • Chain of command

  • Vision statements

  • Formal meetings

  • Memos

  • Org PR & advertising

  • Org politics


Org separateness & isolation

Human behavior is shaped and programmed by its outcomes.

  • Formal reinforcement: job descriptions; annual reviews; formal training

  • Informal: teamwork; co-worker comments; problem-solving & conflict reduction

There is a noticeable GAP between the interests of corporations & their employees. In fact, both are out to USE the other (at least subconsciously). This is the STARTING POINT for understanding the behavior of corps & their employees.

Corporations as whole entities (such as Google or Honda) behave according to the largely IMPERSONAL & AMORAL (focus on what is achieved, not how it is achieved) dictates of capitalism(individualized & institutionalized creation of economic wealth).

Corps engage in self-benefiting competitive (profit-maximizing, cost-minimizing) behaviors using various amoral forms of power/influence (economic size, unique products/services, technology, politics, etc.) within domestic and international industries and markets. Corps are ECONOMIC entities more than HUMAN ones.

The core competitive strategy of all capitalist corporations is to exploit IMPERSONAL/AMORAL economic, social, political, and governmental human impersonal/amoral SYSTEMS: money markets; stock markets; manufacturing; transportation; marketing; supply chains; imaging (advertising & PR); consumerism values; innovative research & development


Most non-executive employees in corps work in PERSONALIZED, VALUES-BASED environments & focus on their PERSONAL LIVES more than their professional lives. They work in person with co-workers, clients, etc. more than with abstract impersonal systems. They focus on their JOB more than the corp. mission.


  • Structural change: job descriptions; who’s in charge; org rules, regulations, policies

  • Employee participation: input to decisions & opportunities to make their own job decisions

  • Ice cube model: making small experimental changes in one area of the org as a pilot test for more extensive future change

  • Internal change agents: influential people who informally champion change in their areas of the org

  • Sunset clause: employees agree to try out a change & vote several weeks or months later on whether or not to continue with it

  • Authentic communication: Building bridges of trust between “Movers” (power players) & “Shakers” (“rock-movers”)




  • Human behavior

  • Organization behavior

  • Social systems (globalism, cultures, politics, etc.)

COOLcon= points of view, thoughts, debate, ideology, policies, the future

HOTcon = agendas, personalities, emotions, feuds, grudges, insults, the past


  • Accommodating →

  • Avoiding →

  • Collaborating→

  • Competing →

  • Compromising →

  • Use when you can’t win

  • Use to buy time to fight another day

  • Use when neither party can win without cooperation

  • Use when unpopular action (win-lose) is only alternative

  • Use when each side has equal power





Professional creativity sparked by going against the grain of status quo (conformity) culture

Why CIT?

  • Western culture’s only remaining capitalism competitive edge

  • Escaping the gravitational pull of the 20th century

  • Intellectual property is more valuable than material property.


Taking out your anger at person A on person B


It hurts so good


Success by proxy



The innate psych capacity to perceive the emotional make-up of others (& self) & sense their behavior, character, or motives


  • Maturity: reliability

  • Self control: stability

  • Self-centeredness: capacity to serve

  • Mood: approachability

Expectancy motivation = seeking to motivate you by linking your org contributions to rewards and outcomes you want from the org (raises, promotions, job security, power, status)

  • What does your org want you to deliver?

  • How much do you want the reward/outcome your org offers for delivering what it wants?

  • How confident are you that you can/will deliver what the org rewards?

  • How confident are you that your org can/will reward you as anticipated if you deliver?

The F-F dialectic is a simple strategy for neutralizing (a la the matador’s cape) or resolving interpersonal conflict through facilitating a dialogue that alternates between sharing facts (objective information) and feelings (subjective emotions).



Achieving change cooperation by synthesizing the win-lose dichotomy of thesis (one point of view) & antithesis (a second, conflicting, POV) into a win-win synthesis of an innovative third position.

Follower typologies (ASP)

ALIENATED FOLLOWERS: Employees disconnected from the org who

haven’t internalized the org mission (didn't suit up for the game)

SHEEP FOLLOWERS: Easily brainwashed by the org but are passive in pursuing it (sat on the bench most of the game)

PROFESSIONAL FOLLOWERS: Willing to contribute to the org mission but need guidance (be put in the game)

Leadership styles based on follower maturity:

  • Sell me, gelme(alien)

  • Tell me, watch me (sheep)

  • Empower me, not devour me (pro)

  • Put me in charge so my contributions can be large

    (F → L)

Most employees are largely alienated from the formal (abstract) org & sometimes even view it as the “enemy.” The informal org of pro/personal relationships is employee “turf” that they largely control, thrive in, & come to work for.

When the formal org dominates the informal org:

  • A slow-moving, inflexible bureaucracy blossoms

  • IVEs override EVEs

  • Innovation & teamwork wither

  • Employees major in the minors

  • Department “silos” form

Power = the “official” (org-backed & controlled) right to assume designated org responsibilities & order others to assist you

Influence = an informal (not backed by org power) attempt to make people behave in certain ways for professional or personal agendas

  • Power is limited by the org; influence is limited by human dynamics: interdependencies +personalities + agendas.

  • Power most affects official org activities; influence most affects the informal (human interactions) “real” org.


Learning how the system works & becoming part of the system


Interdependency withinternal org clients


Leadership/management responsibilities

  • Don’t confuse leading with commanding. Leading uses INFLUENCE (voluntary compliance of followers) to achieve results. Commanding uses POWER (forced compliance backed by the org).

  • You’re not leading if followers HAVE to do what you say. Leading requires the voluntary buy-in & sacrifice of followers.

  • To be a real leader, you have to have a “social contract” with followers, who are willing to make voluntary sacrifices for the leader’s cause/purpose/mission.

  • You’re not leading if people comply with you out of fear, dependency, ignorance, peer pressure, or brainwashing.

  • Organizations never make anyone a leader; only followers do.

When you’re leading, you break through barriers:

When leading, you:

  • Create new realities

  • Distill new opportunities

  • Usher out yesterday & usher in tomorrow

  • Never lose sight of constituents

When you’re managing, you make things fly:



How employees feel about coming to work, being at work, & working


  • More work for same pay (systemic under-staffing)

  • Landslide of inexperienced, incompetent employees & managers

  • Uncontrollable employee turnover & instability

  • Loss of the American work ethic

How you’re motivated is often based on a chain of linked psychological factors that you may not even be conscious of. There are few direct routes to motivating people. No wonder most orgs rely mainly on money to motivate employees--$$$ seems to be directly & indirectly linked to many human needs.


“I want the meaning

it gives my life.”

(We never stop running for long.)


“My org has mixed feelings about this.”

So what can orgs do to stoke employee motivation given how indirect and complex it is? Simple, maintain a fertile interdependencies culture.

#1 COW = Becoming financially wealthy by helping others (especially investors) become financially wealthy

Wealth = More money than can be spent in the short-run

In most corporations, the COW = the upper echelon executiveshired to maximize profit & shareholder wealth.

#2 COP = Board members, executives, & select operations managers who unilaterally make most of the org’s majordecisions (strategy, policies, & rules). The larger the org, the more isolated & disconnected COPs generally are from org employees & constituents.

#3 COMCS = Mostly non-executive career professionals (with 1 or more college degrees + professional certifications) & key non-professionals in org profit-centers (sales, marketing, innovation). COMCS employees self-focus on “CARS”:

#1 SIZ= Self Isolation Zone =

Org members (execs & some board members) who prosper most from the overall org’s prosperity. The SIZ enables them to “fly” with influential people in external capitalist & social power centers. They are largely isolated from org ops & micro-accountability.


1.Empire builder

2. Managing EVEs

3. Deal-making EVEs

4. Data analysis IVEs

5. Data-generation IVEs

6. Skilled physical workers

7. Manual laborers

The Triangle of


Grassroots change

Virtual teams

4 I AMs


Organization-human interface

The OHI revolves around self-centered tradeoffs between org & employees.Merging these two opposing factions of self-interest is the OHI responsibility of org influencers.


  • Fulfill your professional ambitions by helping your org fulfill its profit/competitive mission (to cement the OHI)

  • Use virtual teams & projects to create org “synergy” zones where your professional agenda forms a concentric circle with the org’s mission agendas.

More & more 21st century employees rely on their career & professional fulfillment for self-identity & self-fulfillment in life. Thus, they must find ways to fully integrate/combine their pro & personal lives. The main strategy is virtual living via digital technology.

Is the only purpose of corp. motivation to squeeze more productivity ($$$) out of workers?


Orgs expect you to give higher priority to your professional life than to your personal life. Orgs don’t want/try to motivate you. They expect you to





  • Integration of professional & personal time on the job

  • Maintaining simultaneous physical/virtual & professional/personal communication & relationships (NET-WORK)

  • Dual-career marriages & family

Workers lack goal-focus & have limited pro skills + impersonal (often male) manager =

Directive leadership style: micro-managing style path to goal

Workers lack goal-focus & have limited pro skills + personalized manager =

Supportive style (training + positive reinforcement) path to goal

Workers are goal-driven, have pro skills, but have dual IVE-EVE roles due to store downsizing = Participative style: involved in decision-making path to goal

Orgs won’t manage your career any more. Yougotta run your own career: create your own opportunities & jobs.

Once you temporarily run out of “vines” (ProDev opportunities) in your job/career, drop down into the (value-creation) “river” & swim where the currents (projects) are strongest. Then go back into the upstream “jungle” to find new vines. But watch out for alligators!

Career planning has to make room for the dual Ss: Spontaneity & Serendipity.

Help IVES to:

  • Relate to external clients

  • Participate on virtual teams

  • Focus on who > how

  • Convert internal value into external value (profit) via tech consulting & interpretation

  • Engage in dialogues with EVEs

Help EVEs to:

  • Collaborate with IVEs

  • Empower IVEs

  • Focus on people > profit

  • When possible replace EVEs with savvy IVEs in PR & ceremonial events.

Psych listening = listening for what people mean vs. what they actually say.

Listening for people’s agendas, intentions, & influence tactics

Perceiving what really transpired in a group conversation

The more you are professionally & personally misaligned with the expectations of your org, the higher your stress = how much you want or don’t want to do what your org asks of you.

#1 question to diagnose how much your org stresses you:





  • FORMING: common agenda

  • STORMING: influence niches

  • NORMING: informal accountability

  • PERFORMING: interactive synergy

“Delphi process:” Systematically-gathered feedback from a wide-range of essential constituents inside and outside your organization



We can often change our relationship with others by changing the PAC mindset we transact with them in. This often forces them to interact in a different state as well, thus altering the script.

Scripted life is lazy life. How many one-script relationships do you have, & how long do stick to that 1 script? Want more life? Write more scripts.

Unbalanced or dysfunctional work places stressful, counterproductive opposites on employees due to:

  • Contrasting or conflicting job skills

  • Job duties or skills that clash with the employee’s personal temperament

  • Role-conflict jobs duties

  • Lack or proper job training or pro development

1. The West’s most important competitive edge in global business is innovation, which requires a unisex culture of cooperation, 360 feedback, virtual (informal) teams, & flexible operations > rules-driven 8:00-5:00.

VTs enable you fulfill some of your deeper personal needs (social, self-esteem, acceptance) while pursuing your professional responsibilities.

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