nutrition in humans
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Nutrition in Humans

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 48

Nutrition in Humans - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 66 Views
  • Uploaded on

Nutrition in Humans. Nutrients Part I. Nutrients are the usable portions of foods What are nutrients used for? Energy Sources Building or Repair of cell structure Regulate metabolic processes. 6 Main Groups. Carbohydrates (bread, pasta, potatoes, candy)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Nutrition in Humans' - duy


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
nutrients part i
Nutrients Part I
  • Nutrients are the usable portions of foods
  • What are nutrients used for?
  • Energy Sources
  • Building or Repair of cell structure
  • Regulate metabolic processes
6 main groups
6 Main Groups
  • Carbohydrates (bread, pasta, potatoes, candy)
  • Proteins (beef, fish, milk, peas, nuts)
  • Fats & Oils (butter, bacon, vegetable oil)
  • Water (most foods contain water)
  • Minerals (calcium, iron, sodium, chlorine)
  • Vitamins ( A, B1, B2, Niacin, B12, C, D, K)
which are organic and which are not
Which are organic and which are not?
  • Organic
  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Fats N Oils
  • Vitamins
  • Inorganic
  • Water
  • Minerals
what about what we can t digest
What about What we can’t digest
  • Roughage: indigestible food

Examples: fibrous matter (cell wall) in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains

Benefit: provides bulk to be worked on by muscles, keeps things moving forward

carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Subunit: Saccharides
  • Monosaccharides:1 (simple sugars, glucose)
  • Disaccharides: 2 (sucrose and maltose)
  • Polysaccharides: 3 or more (Starch in plants and Glycogen in animals)
regents question
Regents Question

Most of the starch stored in the cells of a potato is composed of molecules that originally entered these cells as

  • (1) enzymes
  • (2) simple sugars
  • (3) amino acids
  • (4) minerals
why can glucose diffuse through the cell membrane and starch can not
Why can glucose diffuse through the cell membrane and Starch can not?
  • Glucose is a monosaccharide and much smaller than the polysaccharide of Starch
proteins
Proteins
  • Subunit: Amino Acids (NH2 = amino group COOH = carboxyl acid)
regents question1
Regents Question

Two proteins in the same cell perform different functions. This is because the two proteins are composed of

  • (1) chains folded the same way and the same sequence of simple sugars
  • (2) chains folded the same way and the same sequence of amino acids
  • (3) chains folded differently and a different sequence of simple sugars
  • (4) chains folded differently and a different sequence of amino acids
regents question2
Regents Question

Which statement concerning proteins is not correct?

  • (1) Proteins are long, usually folded, chains.
  • (2) The shape of a protein molecule determines its function.
  • (3) Proteins can be broken down and used for energy.
  • (4) Proteins are bonded together, resulting in simple sugars.
proteins1
Proteins
  • The Human body need 20 different types of Amino Acids
  • 12 of the 20 humans can synthesize (produce)
  • 8 of the 20 humans can not, these 8 are called Essential amino acids (Isoleucine, Leucine,Lysine, Methionine, L-Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan and Valine)
if proteins come mostly from meat how do vegetarians get the 8 essential
If proteins come mostly from meat, how do vegetarians get the 8 essential?
  • There are 2 types of proteins
  • Complete Protein: contains all essential amino acids
  • Incomplete Protein: missing one or more essential amino acids
  • So to answer the question: a vegetarian can eat a combination of incomplete proteins to provide all essential amino acids (ex. Rice and Beans)
what happens if you are missing one of the essential 8
What happens if you are missing one of the essential 8?
  • You would get a protein-deficiency disease.

Example: Populations in Africa diet consist of cornmeal (incomplete protein) lacks Tryptophan. These children have a disease called Kwashiorkor (tired and abnormal growth)

fats lipids
Fats (Lipids)
  • Synthesized in body from Fatty acids and Glycerol
  • Represents stored energy
  • Together with proteins synthesize the cell membrane
bad fat
Bad Fat
  • Saturated Fat: Usually solid at room temperature, No Double Bonds, lead to cholesterol deposits in blood vessels
good fat
Good Fat
  • Unsaturated Fat: consists of oils (liquid at room temperature), one or more Double Bonds
minerals
Minerals
  • Important inorganic material (helps in structure of cells and tissues)
  • Calcium (Ca): strong teeth and bones, milk & eggs
  • Iron (Fe): helps in formation of red blood cells (red pigment), liver, meats & vegetables
  • Sodium (Na): needed for proper cell function, table salt
vitamins
Vitamins
  • Like minerals, perform many functions
  • Especially important growth of children
  • In adults repair and maintain healthy body functions
  • Unable to be synthesized by humans
vitamins1
Vitamins
  • A: healthy eyes & skin, green and yellow vegetables
  • B1: growth and appetite, meats, seafood, milk
  • B12: production of red blood cells, liver & green vegetables
  • C: healthy teeth, gums, and blood vessel repair, fruits
  • D: growth and maintenance of bones, produced in skin exposed to sunlight & fortified milk
  • K: blood clotting, liver function, synthesized by bacteria in body
water
Water
  • Excellent solvent (dissolves many compounds)
  • Main component of fluid transport (blood)
  • Many chemical reactions take place
  • Lubricant for joints and digestive system
  • Cools body by sweat evaporation
  • Lost by breathing, urination, and elimination
what is a calorie
What is a calorie?
  • The amount of heat needed to raise 1mL of water by 1 C0
  • Unit of measurement for energy value in food
  • Calorimeter: tool used to measure calories in foods
food additives
Food Additives
  • Saccharin: artificial sweetener
  • Nitrites: protect food from bacterial decay and provide red color, found in bacon hotdogs, and deli meats
  • Monosodium glutamate (MSG): flavor enhancer
what is the digestive system
What is the Digestive System?
  • The alimentary canal (coiled tube which ingested materials move in one direction) and digestive glands make up the digestive system
  • Hydrolysis
what are the functions of the digestive system
What are the functions of the Digestive System?
  • There are 3 main functions of the Digestive system
  • Ingest foods (eat)
  • Breakdown foods so nutrients can be absorbed
  • Eliminate (egestion) what can not be digested
regents question3
Regents Question

Which order of metabolic processes converts nutrients consumed by an organism into cell parts?

  • (1) digestion → absorption → circulation →diffusion → synthesis
  • (2) absorption → circulation → digestion →diffusion → synthesis
  • (3) digestion → synthesis → diffusion →circulation → absorption
  • (4) synthesis → absorption → digestion →diffusion → circulation
when does digestion start
When does digestion start?
  • As soon as we place food in our mouth.
  • Mechanical and Chemical digestion occurs
  • Mechanical digestion = Chewing
  • Chemical digestion= Saliva
digestion in the mouth
Digestion in the Mouth
  • Mucus Glands: lubricant for food in the form of mucus (allows food to travel smoothly)
  • Saliva Glands: contains amylase (enzyme) which breakdown starch into maltose

Polysaccharide (starch) to a Disaccharide (maltose)

from your mouth to your esophagus
From your mouth to your Esophagus
  • Swallowing: coordinated reflex action that moves food to the esophagus
  • During swallowing the trachea (windpipe) moves upward against the epiglottis (flap)
esophagus
Esophagus
  • Food is moved from the mouth to the stomach
  • The movement is called Peristalsis: muscle contractions and relaxations (moves in waves, like pushing a tube of toothpaste)
stomach
Stomach
  • Muscular organ that churns food and initiates protein digestion (balloon like, expands when full and shrinks when empty
stomach gastric juices
Stomach (Gastric Juices)
  • Gastric Glands: located on the inner lining of the stomach
  • Contains peposinogen and hydrochloric acid HCl (keeps pH at 2 and kills off bacteria)
  • Acidic environment favorable for pepsin (enzyme) to breakdown proteins
  • Rennin: an enzyme that changes liquid proteins into a solid state (curdles milk proteins)
stomach final product
Stomach (final product)
  • The process takes about 2 to 24 hours (depending of the foods present)
  • Chyme: mixture of saliva, gastric juices, and water
which organs of the digestive system never in contact with food
Which organs of the digestive system never in contact with food?
  • Liver: secretes bile (aids in digestion of fats) emulsification (makes small globules of fat from large ones)
  • Gallbladder: bile is stored here and transport to small intestine via bile duct
  • Pancreas: pancreatic juices (enzymes)
  • Proteases= protein digestion
  • Amylase= carbohydrate digestion
  • Lipase= fat digestion
small intestine
Small Intestine
  • Longest part of digestive tract (7m)
  • Called small because of diameter (6.5 cm)
  • Most digestion and absorption occurs here
absorption in small intestine
Absorption in Small Intestine
  • Villi: tiny projectiles on the inner surface of small intestine
  • There are enough villi in your small intestine to cover a tennis court (large surface area)
how do the nutrients leave the small intestine
How do the nutrients leave the Small intestine?
  • Diffusion
  • Villi only 1 cell thick
  • Amino acids and simple sugars enter capillaries
  • Fats enter lacteal (lymph vessel)
small intestine is an excellent example of adaptation
Small Intestine is an excellent example of adaptation
  • Muscles contract to mix liquids and bring them to villi
  • Great length and folds provide large surface area for absorption
  • Villi provides large surface area (ten times greater than skin)
  • Thin membrane allows for easy diffusion of nutrients
large intestine
Large Intestine
  • No digestion occurs here
  • Water absorption
  • Contains bacteria which produce vitamins
  • Eating yogurts help replenish lost bacteria
time of digestion
Time of Digestion
  • Mouth: 5-10 sec
  • Esophagus: 10 sec
  • Stomach: 2 to 24 hours
  • Small Intestine: 3 to 4 hours
  • Large Intestine: 18 hours to 2 Days
elimination egestion
Elimination (egestion)
  • Feces or waste is stored in the rectum (lower part of large intestine)
  • Feces leaves our body through the anus
problems in digestion
Problems in Digestion
  • What do you call a hole in your stomach?
  • Ulcer: occurs when HCl (hydrochloric acid) and pepsin are in direct contact with the stomach lining. (little to no Mucus present)
why can t i poop
Why can’t I Poop?
  • Constipation: occurs in the Large intestine, happens when too much water is absorbed and the feces hardens
  • What is the opposite of constipation?
  • Diarrhea: Not enough water in absorbed in the Large intestine and the feces remains soft and watery (may be a symptom of infection or stress)
appendicitis
Appendicitis
  • Inflammation of the appendix (located where the small intestine meets the large intestine)
  • Symptoms: abdominal pain, nausea, and fever
  • Surgery usually needed to remove before rupture
gallstones
Gallstones
  • Harden deposits that form in the gallbladder (deposits may block the bile duct, causing pain)
ad