Balance sheet and statement of cash flows
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Balance Sheet and Statement of Cash Flows. Intermediate Accounting 12th Edition Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield. Chapter 5. Learning Objectives. Explain the uses and limitations of a balance sheet. Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.

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Balance sheet and statement of cash flows

Balance Sheet and Statement of Cash Flows

Intermediate Accounting

12th Edition

Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield

Chapter

5


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Explain the uses and limitations of a balance sheet.

  • Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.

  • Prepare a classified balance sheet using the report and account formats.

  • Determine which balance sheet information requires supplemental disclosure.

  • Describe the major disclosure techniques for the balance sheet.

  • Indicate the purpose of the statement of cash flows.

  • Identify the content of the statement of cash flows.

  • Prepare a statement of cash flows.

  • Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows.


Balance sheet and statement of cash flows

Balance Sheet and Statement of Cash Flows

Balance Sheet

Statement of Cash Flows

Usefulness

Limitations

Classification

Additional information reported

Techniques of disclosure

Purpose

Content and format

Preparation

Usefulness


Balance sheet

Balance Sheet

Usefulness of the Balance Sheet

  • Evaluating the capital structure.

  • Assess risk and future cash flows.

  • Analyze the company’s:

    • Liquidity,

    • Solvency, and

    • Financial flexibility (A measure of adaptability of the business. It indicates the ability of an entity to take effective actions to alter amounts and timing of cashflow so that it can respond to unexpected needs and opportunities. Financial flexibility comes from quick access to cash.

.


Balance sheet1

Balance Sheet

Limitations of the Balance Sheet

  • Most assets and liabilities are reported at historical cost.

  • Use of judgments and estimates.

  • Many items of financial value are omitted.

LO 1 Understand the uses and limitations of an income statement.


Balance sheet2

Balance Sheet

Classification in the Balance Sheet

  • Three General Classifications

    • Assets, Liabilities, and Stockholders’ Equity

  • Companies further divide these classifications:

Illustration 5-1Balance Sheet Classification

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet3

Balance Sheet

Current Assets

Cash and other assets a company expects to convert into cash, sell, or consume either in one year or in the operating cycle, whichever is longer.

Illustration 5-2Accounts and basis of valuation

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet4

Balance Sheet

Review

The correct order to present current assets is

a. Cash, accounts receivable, prepaid items, inventories.

b. Cash, accounts receivable, inventories, prepaid items.

c. Cash, inventories, accounts receivable, prepaid items.

d. Cash, inventories, prepaid items, accounts receivable.

LO 8 Explain how to report other comprehensive income.


Balance sheet current assets

Balance Sheet – “Current Assets”

Cash

  • Generally any monies available “on demand.”

  • Cash equivalents are short-term highly liquid investments that will mature within three months or less.

  • Any restrictions or commitments must be disclosed.

Illustration 5-3

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet current assets1

Balance Sheet – “Current Assets”

Short-Term Investments

Portfolios

Type

Valuation

Classification

Held-to-Maturity

Debt

Amortized Cost

Current or Noncurrent

Trading

Debt or Equity

Fair Value

Current

Available- for-Sale

Debt or Equity

Fair Value

Current or Noncurrent

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet current assets2

Balance Sheet – “Current Assets”

Receivables

  • Claims held against customers and others for money, goods, or services.

    • Accounts receivable – oral promises

    • Notes receivable – written promises

  • Major categories of receivables should be shown in the balance sheet or the related notes.

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet current assets3

Balance Sheet – “Current Assets”

Current Assets:

Cash $ 346

Accounts receivable500

Less allowance for doubtful accounts 25 475

Inventory 812

Total current assets $1,633

Accounts Receivable – Presentation Options

1

2

Current Assets:

Cash $ 346

Accounts receivable, net of $25 allowance475

Inventory 812

Total current assets $1,633

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet current assets4

Balance Sheet – “Current Assets”

Inventories

  • Company discloses:

    • basis of valuation (e.g., lower-of-cost-or-market) and

    • the method of pricing (e.g., FIFO or LIFO).

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet current assets5

Balance Sheet – “Current Assets”

Payment of cash, that is recorded as an asset because service or benefit will be received in the future.

Prepaid Expenses

Cash Payment

Expense Recorded

BEFORE

Prepayments often occur in regard to:

  • rent

  • maintenance on equipment

  • insurance

  • supplies

  • advertising

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet noncurrent assets

Balance Sheet – “Noncurrent Assets”

Long-Term Investments

  • Generally consists of four types:

    • Securities

    • Fixed assets

    • Special funds

    • Nonconsolidated subsidiaries or affiliated companies.

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet noncurrent assets1

Balance Sheet – “Noncurrent Assets”

Long-Term Investments

Securities

  • bonds,

  • stock, and

  • long-term notes

For marketable securities, management’s intent determines current or noncurrent classification.

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet noncurrent assets2

Balance Sheet – “Noncurrent Assets”

Long-Term Investments

Fixed Assets

  • Land held for speculation

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet noncurrent assets3

Balance Sheet – “Noncurrent Assets”

Long-Term Investments

Special Funds

  • Sinking fund

  • Pensions fund

  • Cash surrender value of life insurance

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet noncurrent assets4

Balance Sheet – “Noncurrent Assets”

Long-Term Investments

Nonconsolidated Subsidiaries or Affiliated Companies

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet noncurrent assets5

Balance Sheet – “Noncurrent Assets”

Property, Plant, and Equipment

Assets of a durable nature used in the regular operations of the business.

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet noncurrent assets6

Balance Sheet – “Noncurrent Assets”

Intangibles

  • Lack physical substance and are not financial instruments.

    • Limited life intangibles amortized.

    • Indefinite-life intangibles tested for impairment.

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet exercise

Balance Sheet – “Exercise”

BE5-6Mickey Snyder Corporation’s adjusted trial balance contained the following asset accounts at December 31, 2007: Prepaid Rent $12,000; Goodwill $40,000; Franchise Fees Receivable $2,000; Franchises $47,000; Patents $33,000; Trademarks $10,000. Prepare the intangible assets section of the balance sheet.

Intangibles

Goodwill $ 40,000

Franchises 47,000

Patents 33,000

Trademarks 10,000

Total $130,000

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet noncurrent assets7

Balance Sheet – “Noncurrent Assets”

Other Assets

This section should include only unusual items sufficiently different from assets in the other categories.

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet5

Balance Sheet

Current Liabilities

“Obligations that a company reasonably expects to liquidate either through the use of current assets or the creation of other current liabilities.”

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet6

Balance Sheet

Long-Term Liabilities

“Obligations that a company does not reasonably expect to liquidate within the normal operating cycle.”

All covenants and restrictions must be disclosed.

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet exercise1

Balance Sheet – “Exercise”

BE5-9Included in Ewing Company’s December 31, 2007, trial balance are the following accounts: Accounts Payable $240,000; Pension Liability $375,000; Discount on Bonds Payable $24,000; Advances from Customers $41,000; Bonds Payable $400,000; Wages Payable $27,000; Interest Payable $12,000; Income Taxes Payable $29,000. Prepare the long-term liabilities section of the balance sheet.

Long-term liabilities

Pension liability $375,000

Bonds payable 400,000

Discount on bonds payable (24,000)

Total 751,000

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet7

Balance Sheet

Owners’ Equity

Companies usually divide equity into three parts, (1) Capital Stock, (2) Additional Paid-In Capital, and (3) Retained Earnings.

Illustration 5-15

LO 2 Identify the major classifications of the balance sheet.


Balance sheet format

Balance Sheet - Format

  • Classified Balance Sheet

    • Account form

    • Report form

Accounting Trends and Techniques—2004 (New York: AICPA) indicates that all of the 600 companies surveyed use either the “report form” (506) or the “account form” (94), sometimes collectively referred to as the “customary form.”

LO 3 Prepare a classified balance sheet using the report and account formats.


Additional information reported

Additional Information Reported

There are normally four types of information that are supplemental to account titles and amounts presented in the balance sheet:

  • Contingencies

  • Accounting Policies

  • Contractual Situations

  • Fair Values


Bankruptcy prediction model proposed by e i altman

Bankruptcy prediction model (Proposed by E.I. Altman)

  • Z= Working Capital/TA * 1.2 + Retained Earnings/TA*1.4+EBIT/TA*3.3+Sales/TA *0.99 + MV equity/TL*0.6

  • TA= Total Assets

  • TL= Total Liabilities

  • MV= Market Value

  • Companies with Z scores above 3.0 are unlikely to fail

  • Companies with Z scores below 1.81 are very likely to fail


Balance sheet and statement of cash flows

  • 1. Contingencies: Material events that have an uncertain outcome.

  • It is an existing situation involving uncertainty as to possible gain (gain contingency) or loss( loss contingency) that will ultimately be resolved when one or more future events occur or fail to occur. Examples of gain contingencies are tax operating loss carryforwards or company litigation against another party. . Typical loss contingencies relate to litigation , environmental issues, possible tax assessments, or government investigations.


Balance sheet and statement of cash flows

  • Accounting policies: Discuss about the method use for valuation of inventory, investment and estimation of depreciation

  • Contractual situations : Explanations of certain restrictions or covenants attach to specific assets or more likely to specific liabilities.

  • Fair values: Disclosure of fair value particularly for financial instruments


Techniques of disclosure

Techniques of Disclosure

  • Parenthetical Explanations

  • Notes

  • Cross-Reference and Contra Items

  • Supporting Schedules

  • Terminology

LO 5 Describe the major disclosure techniques for the balance sheet.


The statement of cash flows

The Statement of Cash Flows

One of the three basic objectives of financial reporting is

“assessing the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows.”

LO 6 Indicate the purpose of the statement of cash flows.


The statement of cash flows1

The Statement of Cash Flows

Purpose of the Statement

  • To provide relevant information about the cash receipts and cash payments of an enterprise during a period.

  • The statement provides answers to the following questions:

    • Where did the cash come from?

    • What was the cash used for?

    • What was the change in the cash balance?

LO 6 Indicate the purpose of the statement of cash flows.


Usefulness of the statement of cash flows

Usefulness of the Statement of Cash Flows

Financial Liquidity

Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities

Current Cash Debt Coverage Ratio

=

Average Current Liabilities

Ratio indicates whether the company can pay off its current liabilities from its operations. A ratio near 1:1 is good.

LO 9 Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows.


Usefulness of the statement of cash flows1

Usefulness of the Statement of Cash Flows

Financial Flexibility

Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities

Cash Debt Coverage Ratio

=

Average Total Liabilities

This ratio indicates a company’s ability to repay its liabilities from net cash provided by operating activities, without having to liquidate the assets employed in its operations.

LO 9 Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows.


Usefulness of the statement of cash flows2

Usefulness of the Statement of Cash Flows

Free Cash Flow

Illustration 5-34

The amount of discretionary cash flow a company has for purchasing additional investments, retiring its debt, purchasing treasury stock, or simply adding to its liquidity.

LO 9 Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows.


Balance sheet8

Balance Sheet

Review

The current cash debt coverage ratio is often used to assess

a. financial flexibility.

b. liquidity.

c. profitability.

d. solvency.

LO 9 Understand the usefulness of the statement of cash flows.


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