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??:M. D. Casler* and K. P. Vogel ??:Crop Science. (1999) 39:12-20 . ????:???????:???. ???????? ?. ??????.???

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Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

Accomplishments and Impact

from Breeding for Increased

Forage Nutritional Value


M d casler and k p vogel crop science 1999 39 12 20

M. D. Casler* and K. P. VogelCrop Science. (1999) 39:12-20


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

?

.


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

1880200

300


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)(Palatabililty)


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

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1960

1963TilleyTerry(IVDMD)


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

(1)Kjedahl

(2)


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

20


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

<<>>

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

(1)

TilleyTerryIVDMD377gkg-1(Boxton and Casler,1993)100gkg-1

IVDMD


Ivdmd

IVDMD

(1)

(Smooth bromegrass, Bromus inermis Less);(orchardgrass, Doctylis glomerata L.);(perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L.); (switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.);(alfafa, Medicago sativa L. Buxton and Casler,1993);(timothy, Phleum pratense L. Suprenant et al.,1990);(maize, Zea mays Barriere et al.,1995)

845gkg-1cycle-1 (1.3to12.1%cycle-10.7to2.5%yr-1)


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

(2)

(bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Buxton and Casler, 1993; Vogel and Sleper, 1994)(Digitaria milanjiana Hacker, 1986)

11.8%


Ivdmd1

IVDMD

(1)Pathfinder switchgrassIVDMD

(2)IVDMD


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

Fig. 1. Genetic differences in average daily gain(ADG), forage ability, and animal production per hectare for 10 cultivars that represent increased in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) compared with the population from which they were intended to replace. Each variable is plotted against the observed genetic change in IVDMD .


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

(crested wheatgrass Agropyron spp.)IVDMD(Vogel et al.,1993)

IVDMD


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

Table1.Mean liveweight gain and production of two perennial ryegrass cultivars with contrasting in vitro organic matter digestibility and intake, evaluated by beef cattle on six farms(data adapted from Walters,1984).


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

Table 2. Increase in in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), animal performance, and profit from 1 year of beef production for Trailblazer switchgrass and Manska intermediate wheatgrass compared to control cultivars (data adapted from Vogel and Sleper,1994,and from K.P.Vogel, 1997, unpublished data).


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

Trailblazerswitchagrass (released in 1984)Manskaintermediate wheatgrass, Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkw.& D. R. Dewey, (released in 1992)IVDMD (Vogel and Sleper,1994)

IVDMD


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

(antisense)

stylo (Stylosanthes spp.) IVDMD (Ni et al.,1993; Rae et al.,1996)


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

(2)

(Fahey and Hussein,1999)

()

()


Ndf neutral detergent fiber

(NDF, Neutral detergent fiber)

(Van Soest, 1994)

IVDMDNDF(Buxton and Casler, 1993; Gabrielson et al.,1990)


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

(DNF)(smooth bromegrass (Casler,1995)),reed camarygrass, Phalares arundinacea L. (Surprenant et al.,1988)(maize)(Wolf et all.,1993)9 to 26 g kg-1cycle-1(1.6 - 4.0 % cycle-1)

(NDF):

(1)smooth bromegrassreed canarygrass(NDF)

(2)smooth bromegrass(NDF)0.41 Mg ha -1(4.7%)reed canarygrass0.060.31 Mg ha-1(2.7-6.1%)

Casler(1998)


Ostrinia nubilalis hubner ndf buengeon et al 1990

(Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner)(NDF)(Buengeon et al.,1990)

(NDF)


Shear strength

(shear strength)

(shear strength)

(Inoue et al.,1993, Mackinnon et al.,1998)32%

Inoue et al. (1993)


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

(3)

CP(ADF)CP14g Kg-1(6.9%)(ADF)15g Kg-1(4.4%)(Vanghn et al.,1990)

0.67Mg ha-1(4.8%)

(1)

(2)CP

16g kg-1(2.1%)


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

(McNabb et al.,1993)


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

(4)

(1)reed canarygrasstryptaminecarboline alkaloids13

(2)graminegramine68%185%136%

reed canarygrassgramine tryptamine/ carbokine alkaloids


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

(5)

hypomagnesaemia(Mg)(K)

:

(1)Italian ryegrass(L. multiflorum Lam.)56%13%12% (Mosely and Baker,1991)120hypomagnesaemia88%10%


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

(2)Tall fescue(Festuca arnndinacea Schreb.)K/(Ca+Mg)18%(Mayland and sleeper,1993)Mg12%K/(Ca+Mg)8%(Sleper et al.,1997,personal communication)


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

<<>>

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

(1)

(IVDMDprotein)(NDFligninsilica)


Van wijk et al 1993

Van Wijk et al.(1993)

IVDMD

MunroIVDMDIVDMD


Ivdmd buxton and casler 1993 casler 1998 vogel and sleper 1994

IVDMD(Buxton and Casler,1993; Casler,1998; Vogel and Sleper,1994)

(1)

(2)


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

(2)

(Summarized by Buxton and Caster,1993 and Caster,1998)IVDMD

(Casler et al.,1997 unpublished data)


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

(3)

()


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

Fig. 2-1 Relationship between neutral detergent fiber(NDF) digestibility (IVNDFD) and lignin concentration or esterified ferulic acid conceration for nine high-IVDMD and nine low-IVDMD smooth bromegrass clones (data adapted from Jung and Casler,1990).


Ivdmd2

IVDMD

IVDMDIVDMD/1853%1122%(Kephart et al .,1989)

IVDMD/

IVDMD(Casler and Carpenter,1989; Ehlke and Casler,1985)


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

(4)


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

Table 3. Effects of selection (means of selected populations minus standards) measured on three variables( ADF= acid detergent fiber, IVTD= in vitro true digestibility ,and CP= crude protein concentration)of alfalfa at two locations under three management systems(Vaughn et al.,1990).


Accomplishments and impact from breeding for increased forage nutritional value

<<>>

IVDMD1%3.2%


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