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??:M. D. Casler* and K. P. Vogel ??:Crop Science. (1999) 39:12-20 . ????:???????:???. ???????? ?. ??????.???

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:Accomplishments and Impact from Breeding for Increased Forage Nutritional Value

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Accomplishments and Impact

from Breeding for Increased

Forage Nutritional Value


M. D. Casler* and K. P. VogelCrop Science. (1999) 39:12-20


?

.


1880200

300


:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)(Palatabililty)


<<>>

1960

1963TilleyTerry(IVDMD)


(1)Kjedahl

(2)


20


<<>>

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)


(1)

TilleyTerryIVDMD377gkg-1(Boxton and Casler,1993)100gkg-1

IVDMD


IVDMD

(1)

(Smooth bromegrass, Bromus inermis Less);(orchardgrass, Doctylis glomerata L.);(perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L.); (switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.);(alfafa, Medicago sativa L. Buxton and Casler,1993);(timothy, Phleum pratense L. Suprenant et al.,1990);(maize, Zea mays Barriere et al.,1995)

845gkg-1cycle-1 (1.3to12.1%cycle-10.7to2.5%yr-1)


(2)

(bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Buxton and Casler, 1993; Vogel and Sleper, 1994)(Digitaria milanjiana Hacker, 1986)

11.8%


IVDMD

(1)Pathfinder switchgrassIVDMD

(2)IVDMD


Fig. 1. Genetic differences in average daily gain(ADG), forage ability, and animal production per hectare for 10 cultivars that represent increased in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) compared with the population from which they were intended to replace. Each variable is plotted against the observed genetic change in IVDMD .


(crested wheatgrass Agropyron spp.)IVDMD(Vogel et al.,1993)

IVDMD


Table1.Mean liveweight gain and production of two perennial ryegrass cultivars with contrasting in vitro organic matter digestibility and intake, evaluated by beef cattle on six farms(data adapted from Walters,1984).


Table 2. Increase in in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), animal performance, and profit from 1 year of beef production for Trailblazer switchgrass and Manska intermediate wheatgrass compared to control cultivars (data adapted from Vogel and Sleper,1994,and from K.P.Vogel, 1997, unpublished data).


Trailblazerswitchagrass (released in 1984)Manskaintermediate wheatgrass, Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkw.& D. R. Dewey, (released in 1992)IVDMD (Vogel and Sleper,1994)

IVDMD



(antisense)

stylo (Stylosanthes spp.) IVDMD (Ni et al.,1993; Rae et al.,1996)


(2)

(Fahey and Hussein,1999)

()

()


(NDF, Neutral detergent fiber)

(Van Soest, 1994)

IVDMDNDF(Buxton and Casler, 1993; Gabrielson et al.,1990)


(DNF)(smooth bromegrass (Casler,1995)),reed camarygrass, Phalares arundinacea L. (Surprenant et al.,1988)(maize)(Wolf et all.,1993)9 to 26 g kg-1cycle-1(1.6 - 4.0 % cycle-1)

(NDF):

(1)smooth bromegrassreed canarygrass(NDF)

(2)smooth bromegrass(NDF)0.41 Mg ha -1(4.7%)reed canarygrass0.060.31 Mg ha-1(2.7-6.1%)

Casler(1998)


(Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner)(NDF)(Buengeon et al.,1990)

(NDF)


(shear strength)

(shear strength)

(Inoue et al.,1993, Mackinnon et al.,1998)32%

Inoue et al. (1993)


(3)

CP(ADF)CP14g Kg-1(6.9%)(ADF)15g Kg-1(4.4%)(Vanghn et al.,1990)

0.67Mg ha-1(4.8%)

(1)

(2)CP

16g kg-1(2.1%)


(McNabb et al.,1993)


(4)

(1)reed canarygrasstryptaminecarboline alkaloids13

(2)graminegramine68%185%136%

reed canarygrassgramine tryptamine/ carbokine alkaloids


(5)

hypomagnesaemia(Mg)(K)

:

(1)Italian ryegrass(L. multiflorum Lam.)56%13%12% (Mosely and Baker,1991)120hypomagnesaemia88%10%


(2)Tall fescue(Festuca arnndinacea Schreb.)K/(Ca+Mg)18%(Mayland and sleeper,1993)Mg12%K/(Ca+Mg)8%(Sleper et al.,1997,personal communication)


<<>>

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)


(1)

(IVDMDprotein)(NDFligninsilica)


Van Wijk et al.(1993)

IVDMD

MunroIVDMDIVDMD


IVDMD(Buxton and Casler,1993; Casler,1998; Vogel and Sleper,1994)

(1)

(2)


(2)

(Summarized by Buxton and Caster,1993 and Caster,1998)IVDMD

(Casler et al.,1997 unpublished data)


(3)

()


Fig. 2-1 Relationship between neutral detergent fiber(NDF) digestibility (IVNDFD) and lignin concentration or esterified ferulic acid conceration for nine high-IVDMD and nine low-IVDMD smooth bromegrass clones (data adapted from Jung and Casler,1990).


IVDMD

IVDMDIVDMD/1853%1122%(Kephart et al .,1989)

IVDMD/

IVDMD(Casler and Carpenter,1989; Ehlke and Casler,1985)


(4)


Table 3. Effects of selection (means of selected populations minus standards) measured on three variables( ADF= acid detergent fiber, IVTD= in vitro true digestibility ,and CP= crude protein concentration)of alfalfa at two locations under three management systems(Vaughn et al.,1990).


<<>>

IVDMD1%3.2%


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