slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Wise: Drug dependence-- cluster of cognitive, behavioral

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 10

Wise: Drug dependence-- cluster of cognitive, behavioral - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 96 Views
  • Uploaded on

Addiction:. Wise: Drug dependence-- cluster of cognitive, behavioral and physiologic symptoms indicating the person has impaired control of drug use, and continues to use the drug despite adverse consequences.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Wise: Drug dependence-- cluster of cognitive, behavioral' - dutch


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Addiction:

Wise: Drug dependence-- cluster of cognitive, behavioral

and physiologic symptoms indicating the person has

impaired control of drug use, and continues to use the

drug despite adverse consequences.

Physical dep.-- adaptive state to the drug, with physical

withdrawal symp.

Psychol dep.-- “pleasure”, high---- pos. reinf.

Neg. reinf.---- drug intake terminates

aversive effects of abstinence

( withdrawal ).

Craving-- memory

slide2

ADDICTIONS

Wise (1989, 1996): physical vs. psychological dependence

tolerance, withdrawal

Periaqueductal gray (PAG), VTA, n. accumbens,

raphe n., hypoth., amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate,

prefrontal cortex

Endogenous opiates (enkephalin, endorphin) –morphine, opium, heroin (mu, kappa, delta receptors)

DA- cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, caffeine

Marijuana (THC)- anandamide( “internal bliss”), 2-AG, noladin

ether, virodhamine (4 ligands)

Alcohol - “steady” vs. “binge”, somatization (girls)

Blum et al (1990, 1996); Spear (2000):

Reward deficiency syndrome

Nader et al. (2002)

slide3

Addicts become accustomed to high levels of dopamine, which plays an important role in the regulation of pleasure. Dopamine is manufactured in nerve cells within the ventral tegmental area and is released in the nucleus accumbens, limbic areas and the frontal cortex.

slide4

1. After being released into the synapse, dopamine binds to receptors on the next neuron.

2. Dopamine is either quickly reabsorbed (reuptake) or broken down by the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO).

slide5

Cocaine blocks reuptake of dopamine plus added release. As a result, dopamine accumulates in the synapse, where it stimulates the receiver cell.

slide6

Amphetamines stimulate excess release of dopamine, overwhelming the processes of reuptake and enzymatic breakdown.

slide7

Nicotine stimulates the release of dopamine, while another substance in cigarette smoke blocks the action of MAO.

slide8

Reward-Deficiency-Syndrome(Blum et al., 1996)

ICSS cascade:DA– VTA to n. accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, septum, cingulate, prefrontal cortex

5-HT – in hypothalamus from raphé n.

Enkephalin – in VTA from hypothalamus, in n. accumbens

GABA – in VTA, n. accumbens

GABAa/BZD - in amygdala

BZD = Benzodiazepine

slide9

REWARD CASCADE

Hypoth VTA N. Accumbens

D2

DA

Reward

5-HT

ENK

GABA

GABA

ENK

Raphé

DA

D1/2

D2

Amygdala

DA

Reinforce

Hippoc

GABA

(after Blum et al., 1996)

GABAa (BZD)

P300-wave (EEG) Frontal Cortex

D2 + D4 ???

Anxiety Reduced

slide10

Spear (2000): Reward-deficiency syndrome in adolescence.

Nader et al. (2002): D2 activity and social status in monkeys.

ICSS & ADDICTION---- Rev.

Olds, Delgado, Deutsch, Stein, Crow, Gallistel,

Gibson et al., Rolls, Shizgal, Wise, Stein & Belluzzi,

Henry, Blum et al., Spear, Nader et al.

Video: Addiction

ad