Managing information technology
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Managing Information Technology. CHAPTER 2 COMPUTER HARDWARE. EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS. EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS. First Generation (1946-1959). First Generation of Computers Vacuum Tubes Magnetic Drum Memories. EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS. First Generation (1946-1959).

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Managing Information Technology

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Managing information technology

Managing Information Technology

CHAPTER 2COMPUTER HARDWARE


Evolution of computer systems

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS


Evolution of computer systems1

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

First Generation

(1946-1959)

  • First Generation of Computers

    • Vacuum Tubes

    • Magnetic Drum Memories


Evolution of computer systems2

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

First Generation

(1946-1959)

Second Generation

(1959-1964)

  • Second Generation of Computers

    • Transistors

    • Magnetic Core Memories


Evolution of computer systems3

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

First Generation

(1946-1959)

Second Generation

(1959-1964)

Third Generation

(1964-late 1970s)

  • Third Generation of Computers

    • Integrated Circuits

    • Semiconductor Memories

    • Operating System


Evolution of computer systems4

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

First Generation

(1946-1959)

Second Generation

(1959-1964)

Third Generation

(1964-late 1970s)

Fourth Generation

(1980s-present)

  • Fourth Generation of Computers

    • Large-Scale Integration (LSI) and Very-Large-Scale Integration (VLSI) Circuits

    • Communication Between Computers

    • Multiple Processors in a Single Machine


Evolution of computer systems5

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

First Generation

(1946-1959)

Second Generation

(1959-1964)

Third Generation

(1964-late 1970s)

Fourth Generation

(1980s-present)

Minicomputers

(1970s-present)

  • Minicomputers

    • Same Technologies as Third and Fourth Generations

    • Smaller Machine Size

    • Smaller Business and Scientific Applications


Evolution of computer systems6

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

First Generation

(1946-1959)

Second Generation

(1959-1964)

Third Generation

(1964-late 1970s)

Fourth Generation

(1980s-present)

Minicomputers

(1970s-present)

Microcomputers

(late 1970s-present)

  • Microcomputers

    • Microprocessors

    • Single-User Systems


Basic components of computer systems

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS


Basic components of computer systems1

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

  • All computers made up of the same set of six building blocks: input, output, memory, arithmetic/logic unit, control unit, and files

  • Control unit and arithmetic/logical unit together known as the central processing unit (CPU)


Basic components of computer systems2

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Input

  • Device(s) needed to enter data into the computer for it to use in its computations


Basic components of computer systems3

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Input

  • Terminal

    • Simpler than a PC

    • Designed strictly for input and output

    • Has keyboard and screen

    • Does not have a processor

    • Connected to computer with telecommunication line

    • Allows user to key data directly into computer


Basic components of computer systems4

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Input

  • Common input methods

    • Keyboard: input entered by user through keystrokes

    • Disk drive: data on disk read into memory

    • Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR): used to process bank checks

    • Bar code labeling: scans bar codes on packages or products, and reads into computer


Basic components of computer systems5

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Input

  • Common input methods (cont’d)

    • Optical character recognition (OCR): directly scans typed, printed, or handwritten material

    • Imaging: inputs digital form of documents and photos


Basic components of computer systems6

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Output

  • Device(s) needed to produce results in a usable format


Basic components of computer systems7

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Output

  • Common output methods

    • Video display unit: displays output on a screen

    • Disk drive: output written to disk for retrieval later

    • Printer: output to paper using various types of printers


Basic components of computer systems8

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Output

  • Common output methods

    • Computer output microfilm (COM): microfilm generated for archive copies in small space

    • Voice response units: computer recognizes input, generates verbal response messages


Basic components of computer systems9

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Memory

  • Referred to as main memory or primary memory

  • All data flows to and from memory


Basic components of computer systems10

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Memory

  • Divided into cells

    • Each has a unique address

    • Can only store limited amount of data

      • Byte: stores one character of data

      • Word: stores two or more characters of data


Basic components of computer systems11

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Memory


Basic components of computer systems12

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Memory

  • Each memory cell is a set of circuits

  • Each circuit is on or off (represented by 1 or 0)

  • Each circuit corresponds to a bit (binary digit)

  • Most computers – 8 bits (circuits) represents a character (byte)

  • 2 common bit coding schemes used today:

    • ASCII

    • EBCDIC


Basic components of computer systems13

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Memory

.

.

.


Basic components of computer systems14

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Arithmetic/logic unit

  • Carries out:

    • Mathematical operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)

    • Logical operations (number comparisons)


Basic components of computer systems15

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Arithmetic/logic unit

  • Consists of VLSI circuits on a silicon chip

  • Can perform up to billions of operations per second

  • Numbers are taken from memory as input and results are stored in memory as output


Basic components of computer systems16

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer files

  • File devices used to store vast quantities of data


Basic components of computer systems17

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer files

  • Main memory is limited, volatile, and expensive

  • File devices, or secondary memory, are used to store additional data that is nonvolatile

  • Main disadvantage is the relatively slow speed

  • File storage devices:

    • Magnetic tape drives, disk drives, floppy drives

    • Optical CD or DVD drives


Basic components of computer systems18

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer files

  • Sequential Access Files

    • Records are stored in sequence according to file’s control key

    • Usually stored on magnetic tape

  • Direct Access Files

    • Records can be accessed immediately, without regard to physical location

    • Stored on Direct Access Storage Devices (DASD)


Basic components of computer systems19

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer files

  • Types of DASDs:

    • Fixed (hard) drives

    • Optical disk storage

      • CD-ROM

      • CD-R

      • CD-RW

      • DVD-ROM

      • DVD-R

      • DVD-RW


Basic components of computer systems20

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer files

  • Types of DASDs:

    • Removable drives

      • Floppy drives

      • Zip drives

      • Keychain drives


Basic components of computer systems21

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Control unit

  • Controls the other five components of the computer system


Basic components of computer systems22

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Control unit

  • Used to take advantage of speed and capacity of other components

  • List of operations, called a program, tells the control unit what to do

  • These operations are read from memory, interpreted, and carried out one at a time (stored-program concept)


Stored program concept

STORED-PROGRAM CONCEPT

  • Program

    • A list of what is to be done for an application

    • Each step or operation is called an instruction

  • Machine language

    • Form of a program that can be understood by a specific computer model

    • Consists of operation code and addresses


Stored program concept1

STORED-PROGRAM CONCEPT

  • Measure of computer power

    • Millions of instructions per second (MIPS)

    • Millions of floating point operations per second (MFLOPS)

    • Benchmarking involves running a set of real jobs on various machines to compare speed


Stored program concept2

STORED-PROGRAM CONCEPT

Benchmarking


Extensions to the basic model

EXTENSIONS TO THE BASIC MODEL

Cache memory

  • High-speed, high-cost storage

  • Used as intermediary between control unit and main memory

  • Compensates for speed mismatches built into the computer system


Extensions to the basic model1

EXTENSIONS TO THE BASIC MODEL

Cache memory

  • Locality of reference

    • If a piece of data is used, there is a high probability that a nearby piece of data will be used shortly thereafter

  • Data reuse

    • Data is retained in cache until it has not been recently referenced


Extensions to the basic model2

EXTENSIONS TO THE BASIC MODEL

Multiprocessor systems

  • Systems that contain more than one processor

  • Dual-processor vs. dual-core

    • Dual-processor systems contain two physically separate processors in the same box

    • Dual-core systems contain two complete processors manufactured as part of a single chip


Extensions to the basic model3

EXTENSIONS TO THE BASIC MODEL

Multiprocessor systems

  • Symmetric multiprocessor (SMP)

    • All processors are identical and work independently of each other

  • Parallel processor (PP)

    • Multiple processors work on separate pieces of the same program

  • Massively parallel processor (MPP)

    • Machines with a large number of parallel processors


Types of computer systems

TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Microcomputers

  • Also called personal computers or PCs

  • Can generally be carried or moved by one person and only have one keyboard and display unit

  • Examples:

    • Desktop PC

    • Laptop or notebook

    • Handheld or palmtop

    • Tablet PC


Types of computer systems1

TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Microcomputers


Types of computer systems2

TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Microcomputers

  • Two major types of microcomputers

    • IBM-compatible PCs

    • Apple microcomputers

  • Have been put to a myriad of uses

    • Record-keeping

    • Word processing

    • Games

    • Presentations

    • Programming


Types of computer systems3

TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Midrange systems

  • Broadest category of computer systems

  • Workstations

    • More powerful microcomputers

    • Success due to development of the reduced instruction set computing (RISC) chip

  • Minicomputers

    • Similar to mainframe systems, but less powerful and less expensive

    • Used for departmental computers, office automation, and servers


Types of computer systems4

TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Midrange systems

  • Subcategories

    • Low-end midrange systems

      • Essentially high-powered PCs

      • Typically built on Intel Pentium, Celeron, or Xeon processors or AMD Opteron processors

      • Often run Windows Server

    • High-end midrange systems

      • Powered by RISC processors or top-of-the-line Intel or AMD processors

      • Usually run Linux or some variation of UNIX


Types of computer systems5

TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Midrange systems

  • Subcategories (cont’d)

    • Similar to minicomputers

      • Better input/output capabilities than workstations

      • Easy-to-use commercial applications software

      • Legacy systems, but those that remain have incorporated RISC processors and UNIX


Types of computer systems6

TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Mainframe computers

  • The heart of the computer systems for most major corporations and government agencies

  • Major strength is versatility in applications

    • Online and batch processing

    • Standard business applications

    • Engineering and scientific applications

    • Network control

    • Systems development

    • Web serving


Types of computer systems7

TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Mainframe computers


Types of computer systems8

TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Supercomputers

  • Serve as “number-crunchers”

  • Handle problems generated by research scientists

  • High-end supercomputers located in government research laboratories and major universities

  • Fastest supercomputer (IBM Blue Gene/L) incorporates 65,536 processors and can achieve performance of 280.6 teraflops


Types of computer systems9

TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS


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