How are ribosomes different from most other cell organelles  They pass through the plasma membrane They are located outs

How are ribosomes different from most other cell organelles They pass through the plasma membrane They are located outs PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) has a command center in Houston, Texas, that directs space missions. Which part of a cell is analogous to this command center? Plasma membrane. Nucleus Mitochondria Vacuole . Answer: B. Which of the following structures would you NOT find in your

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How are ribosomes different from most other cell organelles They pass through the plasma membrane They are located outs

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1. How are ribosomes different from most other cell organelles? They pass through the plasma membrane They are located outside the cell. They are not enclosed by a membrane. They contain chromatin.

2. The National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) has a command center in Houston, Texas, that directs space missions. Which part of a cell is analogous to this command center? Plasma membrane. Nucleus Mitochondria Vacuole

3. Which of the following structures would you NOT find in your body cells? A. Mitochondria. B. Cell walls. C. Plasma membranes. D. Ribosomes.

4. Animal cells contain____________. A. Chlorophyll. B. Chloroplasts. C. Cell membrane. D. Cell walls.

5. Cell specialization means that cells in an organism are uniquely suited to carry on reproduction. respond to changing conditions. react with the environment. perform a specific function.

6. If a cell is placed in salt water, water leaves the cell by _____. Osmosis Diffusion Active transport phagocytosis

7. Which of the following is NOT a form of passive transport? Facilitated diffusion Endocytosis Osmosis

8. The structure most responsible for maintaining cell homeostasis is the ____. Cytoplasm Mitochondrion Cell wall Plasma membrane

9. As a result of diffusion, the concentration of many types of substances ____. Always remains greater inside the membrane. Eventually becomes balanced on both sides of the membrane. Always remains greater outside of a membrane. Becomes imbalanced on both sides of a membrane.

10. The dispersal of ink in a beaker of water is an example of Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport Endocytosis

11. The cell will swell when it is placed in a(n) Hypotonic solution Hypertonic solutions Isotonic solutions None of the above

12. Which statements are part of the cell theory? All organisms are made up of cells All cells come from pre-existing cells Cells are the basic unit of life All of these

13. Which scientist coined the phrase “cell”? Robert Brown Matthew J. Schleider Rudolf Virchow Robert Hooke

14. Which factor helped to develop the cell theory? Scientists Microscopes Both of these None of these

15. Electron microscope focus a beam of electrons through a specimen to magnify objects up to a ____ times their actual size. 100 500,000 100,000 1,000,000

18. Which compound provides energy to the cell? A. DNA B. RNA C. ATP D. NAD

19. Energy is released from ATP when the bond is broken between: A. two phosphate groups. B. adenine and ribose. C. ribose and phosphate group. D. adenine and phosphate group.

20. Which process is used by green plants to make food? A. Respiration. B. Fermentation. C. Photosynthesis. D. Glycolysis.

21. What raw materials are needed by the plant to make glucose? A. Water and oxygen. B. Carbon dioxide and oxygen. C. Water and carbon dioxide. D. Carbon dioxide and enzymes.

22. The breakdown of organic compounds to produce ATP is known as: A. cellular respiration. B. lactic acid fermentation. C. alcoholic fermentation. D. photosynthesis.

23. The release of energy from food molecules in the absence of oxygen is called: A. lactic acid respiration. B. alcoholic fermentation. C. aerobic respiration. D. anaerobic respiration.

24. The term “aerobic” in aerobic respiration means the process requires: A. ATP. B. oxygen. C. carbon monoxide. D. lactic acid.

25. Which of the following is produced in the aerobic breakdown of a glucose molecule? A. Water. B. Oxygen. C. Light. D. Ethyl Alcohol.

26. If a strand of DNA had bases in the following order – ATCCGTC, what would be the order of the bases in the other strand of DNA? A. ATCCGTC. B. TAGGCAG. C. GAGGCAT. D. GCTTACT.

27. Which of the following statements is true? The nitrogen bases that make up the DNA nucleotides of plants are much different from the bases found in animals. The more closely related two organisms are, the more alike the order of their DNA nucleotides. Changes in genes do not affect any of the traits of an individual. A given sequence of bases can result in a number of different amino acids.

28. Which of the following analogies is true? The copy of the DNA is like a blueprint of the RNA code. DNA is like workers on an assembly line. Nucleotides are the building blocks of nitrogen bases. The structure of DNA can be compared to a twisted ladder.

29. Which of the following is the larger classification of organisms? A. Species. B. Genus. C. Family. D. Order.

30. Guinea pigs and mice have differences in 18 of the 51 amino acids found in the protein hormone, insulin. Humans and mice also have the same number of differences in their insulin hormones. What can you conclude about the relationship between guinea pigs and mice? A. They look similar, thus they are more closely related to one another than they are to humans. B. They look similar, but they are no more related to one another than mice are to humans. C. They look similar, thus they belong to the same species. D. They have larger differences in their protein structures, thus they belong to different kingdoms.

31. Which of the following would be used to classify an organism? A. Biochemical analysis. B. The structure of the organism. C. The behavior of the organism. D. All of the above

32. GROUP: DOMESTIC CAT, LEOPARD, DEER Kingdom: Animalia, Animalia, Animalia Phylum: Chordata, Chordata, Chordata Class: Mammalia, Mammalia, Mammalia Order: Carnivora, Carnivora, Artiodactyla Family: Felidae, Felidae, Cervidae Genus: Felis, Panthera, Odocoileus Species: cattus, pardus, virginianus Based on the information above - At which level do deer and leopards differ? A. Phylum. B. Class. C. Kingdom. D. Order.

33. GROUP: DOMESTIC CAT, LEOPARD, DEER Kingdom: Animalia Animalia Animalia Phylum: Chordata Chordata Chordata Class: Mammalia Mammalia Mammalia Order: Carnivora Carnivora Artiodactyla Family: Felidae Felidae Cervidae Genus: Felis Panthera Odocoileus Species: cattus pardus virginianus Based upon the information above - which two species are most closely related? A. Domestic cat and deer. B. Leopard and domestic cat. C. Deer and leopard. D. All three are equally related.

34. GROUP: DOMESTIC CAT LEOPARD DEER Kingdom: Animalia Animalia Animalia Phylum: Chordata Chordata Chordata Class: Mammalia Mammalia Mammalia Order: Carnivora Carnivora Artiodactyla Family: Felidae Felidae Cervidae Genus: Felis Panthera Odocoileus Species: cattus pardus virginianus Based upon the information above - what is the binomial nomenclature of a leopard? A. Mammalia. B. Felidae. C. Panthera pardus. D. Chordata.

35. Which of the following correctly sequences organisms from the simplest to the most complex? A. Eubacteria, plant, protist. B. Eubacteria, protist, animal. C. Fungi, animal, archaebacteria. D. Plant, fungi, protist

36. An organism that has membrane-bound organelles, many cells, and can produce its own food is; A. prokaryotic, unicellular, heterotrophic. B. eukaryotic, unicellular, autotrophic. C. prokaryotic, multicellular, autotrophic. D. eukaryotic, multicellular, autotrophic.

37. Organisms that are mostly multicellular, heterotrophic, and cell walls made of chitin belong to the Kingdom: A. Plantae. B. Fungi. C. Animalia. D. Protista.

38. What is a characteristic of cells of organisms that belong in Kingdom Animalia? A. they have cellulose. B. they lack organelles. C. they lack cell walls. D. they are unicellular.

39. Organisms that are unicellular, prokaryotic, and live in harsh conditions belong to the Kingdom: A. Eubacteria. B. Fungi. C. Protista. D. Archaebacteria.

40. What is a characteristic of cells of organisms that belong to the Kingdom Protista? A. they are mostly unicellular. B. they are prokaryotic. C. they are mostly multicellular. D. they are mostly autotrophic.

41. The skin, hair , nails, and glands of the skin belong to what protective body system? A. Muscular System. B. Integumentary System. C. Skeletal System. D. Immune System.

42. Some functions of the skeletal system are... A. defends body against foreign invaders. B. form a protective barrier from the environment. C. stores minerals and makes blood cells. D. filters bacteria and returns fluid to the blood.

43. What are the blood vessels that carry unoxygenated blood to the heart? A. Capillaries. B. Arteries. C. Atriums. D. Veins.

44. The system that transports oxygen and nutrients through out the body is known as the ... A. Lymphatic System. B. Circulatory System. C. Immune Sytem. D. Respiratory System.

45. What is the primary nutrient that provides quick useable energy for the body? A. Carbohydrates. B. Proteins. C. Lipids. D. Nucleic acids.

46. Which body system which includes the epiglottis, trachea and bronchi? A. Circulatory System. B. Digestive System. C. Excretory System. D. Respiratory System.

47. What two body systems are most responsible for the control of the body? A. The Excretory and Respiratory Systems. B. The Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems. C. The Nervous and Endocrine Systems. D. The Skeletal and Muscular Systems.

48. The Excretory System has many functions, which include: A. protecting the body against foreign invaders. B. removal of chemical wastes and maintenance of salt levels. C. circulating vital nutrients to all parts of the body. D. controlling movement and response to the environment.

49. How does the karyotype of a person with down syndrome differ from a normal karyotype? It lacks a chromosome It has two sex chromosomes It occurs in XO individuals It has an extra copy of a chromosome

50. Chromatids are ____. Dense patches within the nucleus Prokaryotic chromosomes Two exact copies of the DNA that make up each chromosome Structures that were chromosomes during mitosis

51. In humans, females have ____ sex chromosomes. XY XX YY XO

52. When a cell such as a gamete, contains two sets of chromosomes, it is said to be ____. Haploid Diploid Homologous Heterozygous

53. A ____ is a segment of DNA that codes for a protein or RNA molecule. Chromosome Centromere Gene Chromatid

54. Abnormal human karyotypes can have _____. Extra chromosomes Part of a chromosome missing Missing sex chromosomes All of the above

55. How are karyotypes used? To diagnose genetic disorders Show the arrangement of homologous chromosomes pairs Study the differences in chromosome shape, structure, and size All of these

56. If an organism’s diploid number of chromosomes is 100. What is it’s haploid number? 25 200 50 1000

57. Why is DNA replication important? A. Replication forms the characteristic structure of a strand of DNA. B. The process changes messenger RNA into transfer RNA. C. A cell’s DNA must be duplicated so that each new cell in the next generation of cells receives a complete copy of the parent cell’s DNA. D. Replication is the process that results in the formation of a protein.

58. Which of the following processes is carried out by both cells and viruses A. Creating carbohydrates from sunlight. B. Producing new DNA or RNA. C. Transporting products through the endoplasmic reticulum. D. Metabolizing energy in mitochondria.

59. Viruses reproduce by: Attacking a host cell and then waiting for the cell to die. Splitting in half once they enter a host cell and later growing. Using the process of meiosis. Using the host cell's DNA to create new viruses.

60. A virus is unique in that it: A. Contains DNA. B. Contains RNA. C. Reproduces in a short time. D. Cannot reproduce outside a living cell.

61. Viruses are exceptions to the cell theory, but they have some characteristics of living things. What is one of these characteristics? They are made up of many specialized cells. They contain genetic material. They reproduce by mitosis. They contain chlorophyll.

62. A virus that attacks a bacterial cell is called a: Provirus. Bacteriophage. Bacilullus. Spirillum.

63. Which type of viral infection literally takes over and quickly destroys the host cell? Lytic cycle. Lysogenic cycle. Antibiotic cycle. Conjugation cycle.

64. Viruses can cause diseases in which of the following organisms? Humans. Plants. Animals. All of the above

65. Which statement is NOT true of a virus? It is a non-cellular particle. It has a nucleic acid core. It has a protein coat. It contains both DNA and RNA.

66. Bacteria are classified according to their: A. color. B. gender. C. shape. D. function.

67. Whip-like structures used by bacteria for movement are called: A. spheres. B. flagella. C. pseudopods. D. cilia.

68. A bacteria such as pneumococcus would have which shape? A. round. B. rod. C. spiral. D. hexagonal.

69. Bacteria that do not need oxygen to live are called: A. aerobic. B. antioxidants. C. oxygen free. D. anaerobic

70. A bacteria that causes a disease is known as a: A. “bug”. B. parasite. C. pathogen. D. saprophyte

71. The main reason organisms are placed into the kingdoms eubacteria or archaebacteria is that: A. they can live anywhere on earth. B. they have a prokaryotic cell. C. they can photosynthesize underwater. D. they are composed of eukaryotic cells.

72. The genetic material found in bacteria is contained on: A. the nuclear envelope. B. a single strand of circular DNA called a plasmid. C. mitochondria. D. many twisted DNA segments.

73. In which of the following environments would one expect to find bacteria: A. polar ice. B. hot springs. C. inside another organisms. D. all of these are correct.

74. A species of frogs has a stickier tongue than some other species of frogs, and it allows them to catch flies better. This stickier tongue is an example of a(n):: A. Species. B. Fossil. C. Radiation. D. Adaptation.

75. Which of the following is evidence that all living things have a common ancestor: A. Mutations occur in all species. B. Similar embryological development. C. Organisms live symbiotically D. All organisms can go extinct

76. Phylogeny describes: A. How living things are related. B. How certain species have similar physical structures. C. How fossils are formed

77. According to Darwin's theory of evolution, differences between species may be the result of: A. The disuse of body structures. B. The transmission of acquired characteristics. C. Natural selection. D. Mutagenic agents.

78. Two nucleotide sequences found in two different species are almost exactly the same. This suggests that these species: A. Are evolving into the same species. B. Contain identical DNA. C. May have similar evolutionary histories. D. Have the same number of mutations

79. The structural similarities between the flippers of whales and the arms of humans are used to show that the: A. Human species began life in the oceans. B. Human species and whales have a common ancestry. C. Whales are older than the human species. D. Whales evolved from the human species.

80. An example of one of Darwin's pieces of evidence for natural selection is: A. In a litter of lion cubs, some are larger than the others. B. Mutations occur spontaneously. C. The deeper in the ground a fossil is, the older it is. D. DNA sequences can help scientists determine relationships between species.

81. A modern day example of evolution and natural selection is: A. The evolution of humans. B. The evolution of car designs. C. the evolution of spontaneously generated organisms. D. The evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

82. A scorpion stalks, kills, and then eats a spider. Based on its behavior, which terms describe the scorpion/spider interaction? A. Producer/consumer. B. Predator/prey. C. Parasite/host. D. Autotroph/heterotroph.

83. Certain bacteria living in a human's large intestine help to produce vitamin K. This relationship is an example of : A. Parasitism. B. Predation. C. Commensalism. D. Mutualism.

84. Predation and parasitim are similar because: A. One organism benefits and the other is harmed. B. One organism benefits and the other is not harmed. C. Both organisms benefit. D. Both organisms are harmed.

85. Which of the following best represents a mutualistic relationship? A. Bullsnake/moose. B. White-tailed deer/grass. C. Hummingbird/blossom. D. Spadefoot toad/cricket.

86. The snowshoe hare that lives in cold climates has white fur. This type of adaptation is called: A. Camouflage. B. Mimicry. C. Avoidance. D. Aggression.

87. Which of the following animals is the wolf most likely to be in competition with for food: A. Moose. B. Elk. C. Mouse. D. Coyote.

88. Which of the following bases pairs with adenine in RNA? A. Thymine. B. Guanine. C. Uracil. D. Cytosine.

89. Which of these processes does NOT require DNA replication? A. Mitosis. B. Meiosis. C. Cell Division. D. Cell Growth.

90. Which of the following processes results in an RNA copy of a DNA strand? A. Translation. B. Transcription. C. Replication. D. Mitosis.

91. A section of DNA contains the following bases in this order: GATCCT. Which of the following mRNA sequences complements this section of DNA? A. CUAGGA B. TCGAAG C. CTAGGC D. AGCUUC

92. Why does a person with only one copy of a defective gene often not get the disorder associated with the gene? A. Neither parent was a carrier of the gene. B. Both parents were carriers. C. This individual is protected by the presence of a normal gene. D. The individual is not able to reproduce.

93. Why are mutations important? A. They are always passed on to future generations. B. They are often random events. C. They only occur in sex cells. D. Variation that results from mutations is fundamental to the evolution of a species.

94. In fruit flies with the curly wing mutation, the wings will be straight if the flies are kept at 16 degrees Celsius. The most probable explanation for this is that: A. fruit flies with curly wings cannot survive at high temperatures. B. the environment influences wing phenotype in these fruit flies. C. high temperatures increases the rate of mutations. D. wing length in these fruit flies is directly proportional to the increase in temperature.

95. The concept that new varieties of organisms are still evolving is best supported by the: A. increasing need for new antibiotics. B. increasing number of individuals in the human population. C. decreasing number of new fossils discovered in undisturbed rock layers. D. decreasing activity of photosynthetic organisms due to warming of the atmosphere.

96. Mutations can be considered as one of the raw materials of evolution because they: A. contribute to new variations in organisms. B. are usually related to the environment in which they appear. C. are usually beneficial to the organism in which they appear. D. usually cause species of organisms to become extinct.

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