Exam 1 Review. Important topics and some review questions. Models. Why do we use models? What do we look for in a model?. Sample Question. Models must be testable They don’t have to be perfect. Which of the following models would be most useful to a psychologist who is studying depression?
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Important topics and some review questions
Models must be testable
They don’t have to be perfect
Which of the following models would be most useful to a psychologist who is studying depression?
(a) A model that can explain any results the psychologist might find
(b) A model that makes precise predictions that turn out to be wrong occasionally
Ordinal scales give information about order
Calculating averages requires an interval scale
I’m fixing dinner for Albert and Brenda. Albert rank orders his preferences: Steak, Fish, Pizza, Chicken. Brenda rank orders them Pizza, Fish, Steak, Chicken. What can I conclude?
(a) Steak and Fish are equivalent
(b) I’d better not fix chicken
should tell you what to do
Charlie is studying social adjustment in young children. Which is the least like an operation definition of social adjustment?
(a) A child’s understanding of other children’s feelings
(b) Teachers’ ratings of a child’s social adjustment
(c) A child’s score on a test of social adjustment
For which of the following topics would low constraint research be most suitable?
(a) Compare two methods for teaching statistics
(b) Find out if training in conflict resolution reduces aggression in teenagers
(c) Find variables related to dating behavior that might be worth studying further
Use low constraint research
Desdemona is interested in the dynamics of family interactions. She spends hours watching all the families that eat at a popular restaurant. Which sampling issue is probably of least concern here?
Plenty of participants in this case,
but sample all three of these
Desdemona observed that expressions of anger by parents are more common in larger families. Which of the following conclusions is appropriate?
If you are the parent of a large family who takes your kids to a restaurant, …
(a) it’s better to take them a few at a time
(b) you can expect to get angry more often than parents of small families
Prediction is OK
Causal inference is not
Eric counted children’s use of pronouns in a classroom. He found that tenth graders use the word “We” a lot, fifth graders use it rarely. He concluded that between fifth and tenth grade children acquire an understanding of social groups. What is not a problem with his conclusion?
(a) He may be over-generalizing his results
(b) Cohort effects may influence the results
(c) He has no operational definition for “pronoun”
(d) There may be several confounding variables
Look for other explanations
What kind of conclusions can one draw from correlational research ?
How should one interpret the numerical value of a correlation?
Fiona studied recreational runners, and found a correlation of 0.5 between number of injuries and time spent stretching. Which of the following conclusions is appropriate?
(a) Stretching prevents injuries
(b) Stretching makes injuries worse
(c) Having an injury makes people want to stretch more
(d) Stretching explains one quarter of the variance in running injuries
Prediction is assessed by r2
Causal inference is out
Look for other explanations!