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Addressing Mental Health Barriers to Learning Through Educator-Initiated Programs. Carl E. Paternite, Ph.D. Center for School-Based Mental Health Programs Department of Psychology Miami University (Ohio) http://www.units.muohio.edu/csbmhp

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slide1

Addressing Mental Health Barriers to Learning Through Educator-Initiated Programs

Carl E. Paternite, Ph.D.

Center for School-Based Mental Health Programs

Department of Psychology

Miami University (Ohio)

http://www.units.muohio.edu/csbmhp

Presented at the 7th National Conference on Advancing School-Based Mental Health Programs, Philadelphia, PA,

September 21st, 2002

slide2

Addressing Mental Health Barriers to Learning Through Educator-Initiated Programs

  • Instructional Objectives For Presentation:
    • Offer a "case study" of program development.
    • Increase participant awareness of the importance of

educators in school-based mental health programming.

    • Increase participant knowledge of effective approaches to

enhance educator – mental health professional collaboration.

    • Increase knowledge of ways to infuse "mental health

education" into the school milieu.

slide3

Addressing Mental Health Barriers to Learning Through Educator-Initiated Programs

  • Themes Addressed in Presentation:
    • Program development.
    • Interdisciplinary collaboration and partnership.
    • Prevention.
    • Research, training and education.
mental health needs of youth and available services
Mental Health Needs of Youth and Available Services
  • 20-38% of children and adolescents need mental health intervention.
  • One-sixth to one-third of these youth actually receive any service, and, of those who do, less than half receive adequate treatment.
  • For the small percentage of youth who do receive service, most actually receive it within a school setting.
  • These realities raise questions about the mental health field’s over-reliance on clinic-based treatment, and have reinforced the importance of alternative models for mental health service — especially expanded school-based programs.
expanded school based mental health programs
Expanded School-Based Mental Health Programs
  • National movement to place effective mental health programs in schools.
  • To promote the academic, behavioral, social, emotional, and contextual/systems well-being of youth, and to reduce “mental health” barriers to school success.
  • Programs incorporate primary prevention and mental health promotion, secondary prevention, and intensive intervention.
  • Intent is to contribute to building capacity for a comprehensive, multifaceted, and integrated system of support and care.
potential of schools as key points of engagement
Potential of Schools as Key Points of Engagement
  • Opportunities to engage youth where they are.
  • Unique opportunities for intensive, multifaceted approaches and are essential contexts for prevention and research activity.
center for school based mental health programs at miami university
Center for School-Based Mental Health Programs (at Miami University)
  • Ohio Mental Health Network for School Success
    • Six affiliate organizations working together in regional and state-wide activities.
  • Butler County School-Based Mental Health Program
    • School-based mental health promotion, prevention, intervention, and applied research activities.
  • Addressing Barriers to Learning Program
    • Annual conferences to initiate and sustain local, school-based projects that reduce mental health barriers to learning and enhance the development of healthy school communities.
center for school based mental health programs at miami university1
Center for School-Based Mental Health Programs (at Miami University)
  • Behavioral Health Advisor
    • Mental health newsletter for elementary and secondary school educators, focusing on issues related to child mental health and school success.
  • Evaluation of Alternative Education/ Discipline Programs
    • Ongoing formative evaluation of 11 alternative programs in Butler County,OH.
  • Partnerships for Success Academy (with the Ohio State University Center for Learning Excellence)
    • Technical assistance to 15 counties engaged in efforts to build capacity to prevent and respond effectively to youth problem behaviors while promoting positive development.
center for school based mental health programs at miami university funding
Center for School-Based Mental Health Programs (at Miami University)Funding
  • Butler County Mental Health Board
  • The Health Foundation of Greater Cincinnati
  • Ohio Department of Mental Health
  • The Center for Learning Excellence
  • Butler County Family and Children First Council
  • Talawanda School District
  • Miami University cost sharing
slide10

School-Based Mental Health Partnerships

Many individuals have been instrumental to our school-based mental health partnerships since 1998. To name just a few:

University-Based (3 universities, 5 academic divisions, 6 departments)

Faculty/Staff: Carl E. Paternite, Karen Schilling, Julie Rubin, Denise Fox-Barber, Amy Wilms, Betty Yung, David Andrews, Al Neff, Diana Leigh, Alex Thomas, Randy Flora, Doris Bergen, Valerie A. Ubbes, Raymond Witte, Joan Fopma-Loy …

Psychology interns and graduate assistants: Lynne Knobloch, Becky Hutchison, Sally Phillips, Leslie Baer, Linda Gal, Derek Oliver, Mike Imhoff, Julie Cathey, Liz Morey, Chris Dyszelski, Chris Mauro, Nancy Pike, Jessica Donn, Sandra Kirchner, LaTasha Mack, Ann-Marie Bixler, Jari Santana-Wynn, Jeanene Robinson, Gloria Oliver, Francesca Dalumpines, Jamie Williamson, Jill Thomas, Jennifer Malinosky, Jason Kibby, Julia Pemberton, Ann Marie Lundberg, Marc McLaughlin, Robin Graff-Reed …

Community-Based

John Staup, Kay Rietz, Saundra Jenkins, Barbara Perez, Susan Smith, Valerie Robinson, Jolynn Hurwitz, Kate Keller, Terri Johnston, Charlie Johnston, Kathy Oberlin, Ellen Anderson, Noelle Duval, Linda Maxwell, Greg Foster, Teresa Jullian-Goebel, Suzanne Robinson, Terre Garner, Bryan Brown, Greg Rausch, Carolyn Jones, David Turner …

School-Based

Teacher consultants: Sherie Davis, Marilyn Elzey, Tom Orlow, Teresa Abrams, Sarah Buck, Jim Carter, Julie Churchman, Amy Gibson, Joy Boyle, Chris Carroll, Mary Hessling, Joan Parks, Joanne Williamson, Jaimie Pribble, Pam Termeer, Pat Stephens, Patricia Scholl, Martha Slamer, David Wood, Susan Meyer, Monna Even, Ginny Paternite, Connie Short, Terri Hoffmann, Karen Shearer …

Guidance counselors, school psychologists, school nurses, and administrators: Marianne Marconi, Sandy Greenberg, Tom O’Reilly, Roberta Perlin, Betsy Esber, MaryBeth Bergeron, Greg Rausch, Ann Schmitt, Alice Bonar, Stephanie Johnson, Marcia Schlichter, Susan Cobb, Phil Cagwin, Bob Bierly, Martha Angello, Bill Miller, Bob Phelps, Dan Milz, Dave Isaacs, Mark Mortine, Rhonda Bohannon, Clint Moore, Cathy Keener, Mary Jane Roberts, Jean Eagle, Alice Eby, Kathy Jonas, David Greenburg, Candice McIntosh, Sharon Lytle, Terri Fitton, Steve Swankhaus, Melissa Kessler, Mary Jacobs ..

Action-Project Teams: Fourteen 2-4 person teams from ten schools in five school districts, each with a university faculty/graduate student liaison.

slide11

Center for School-Based Mental Health Programs (at Miami University)

  • Overarching Goals
  • Build collaborative university-school district relationships to

address the mental health needs of children and adolescents

through multifaceted programming.

  • Promote mental health and school success for youth through:
    • Primary prevention and mental health education
    • Early direct intervention for identified at-risk children

and adolescents, and treatment for thosewithsevere/

chronic mental health problems

    • Action research, training, and consultation
the ohio mental health network for school success
The Ohio Mental Health Network for School Success

Mission

To help Ohio’s school districts, community-based agencies, and families work together to achieve improved educational and developmental outcomes for all children — especially those at emotional or behavioral risk and those with mental health problems, including pupils participating in alternative education programs.

the ohio mental health network for school success1
The Ohio Mental Health Network for School Success

Action Agenda

  • Create awareness about the gap between children’s mental health needs and “treatment” resources, and encourage improved and expanded services.
  • Encourage mental health agencies and school districts to adopt mission statements that address the importance of partnerships.
  • Conduct surveys of mental health agencies and school districts to better define the mental health needs of children and to gather information about promising practices.
the ohio mental health network for school success2
The Ohio Mental Health Network for School Success

Action Agenda (continued)

  • Provide technical assistance to mental health agencies and school districts, to support adoption of evidence-based and promising practices, including improvement and expansion of school-based mental health services.
  • Develop a guide for education and mental health professionals and families, for the development of productive partnerships.
  • Assist in identification of sources of financial support for school-based mental health initiatives.
  • Assist university-based professional preparation programs in psychology, social work, public health, and education, in developing inter-professional strategies and practices for addressing the mental health needs of school-age children.
educators as key members of the mental health team
Educators as Key Members of the Mental Health Team
  • Schools should not be held responsible for meeting every need of every student.
  • However, schools must meet the challenge when the need directly affects learning and school success. (Carnegie Council Task Force on Education of Young Adolescents, 1989)
  • There is clear and compelling evidence that there are strong positive associations between mental health and school success.
slide16

Educators as Key Members of the Mental Health Team

  • “Children whose emotional, behavioral, or social difficulties are not addressed have a diminished capacity to learn and benefit from the school environment. In addition, children who develop disruptive behavior patterns can have a negative influence on the social and academic environment for other children.” (Rones & Hoagwood, 2000, p.236)
  • Contemporary school reform—and the associated high-stakes testing (including recently signed federal legislation)—has not incorporated the Carnegie Council imperative. That is, recent reform has not adequately incorporated a focus on addressing barriers to development, learning, and teaching.
common messages across initiatives
Common Messages Across Initiatives
  • It is important to build on the common goals of expanded school-based mental health programs and existing community and school initiatives. For example, in Ohio:
    • “Comprehensive Strategy”
    • “Partnerships for Success”
    • “Alternative Education Challenge Grant Program”
  • All share a common core focus on barriers to development, learning, and teaching.
  • Identification of the common message across initiatives is extremely important for reducing the chances that what is being introduced by any one initiative will be marginalized by proponents of narrowly-focused school reform.
creating and maintaining ongoing empowering dialogue with educators
Creating and Maintaining Ongoing, Empowering Dialogue with Educators
  • Multi-level, formal and informal dialogue with policy makers, formulators, enforcers, and implementers.
  • Programs for school board members and administrators.
  • Newsletter for teachers.
  • Website resources.
  • Extensive “contact time” with educators in their school buildings.
  • “Joining” the school community.
  • Key opinion leaders.
assessing and responding to educator identified needs and concerns
Assessing and Responding To Educator-Identified Needs and Concerns
  • Careful, detailed, local needs assessments from the perspective of educators, and a commitment to be responsive to identified needs.
  • Results used in advocacy efforts and as guideposts for ongoing work.
prioritizing promotion of healthy development and problem prevention
Prioritizing Promotion of Healthy Development and Problem Prevention
  • School-based models should capitalize on schools’ unique opportunities to provide mental health-promoting activities.
  • Recommended strategies for violence and drop-out prevention, including those for which the central role of educators is evident, can be promoted actively within an expanded school-based mental health program.
prioritizing promotion of healthy development and problem prevention1
Prioritizing Promotion of Healthy Development and Problem Prevention

For violence prevention, these include:

  • Structured social skill development programs.
  • Mentoring.
  • Programs that foster school engagement, participation, and bonding.
  • Promotion of developmental assets.
  • A variety of approaches that engage parents and families.
prioritizing promotion of healthy development and problem prevention2
Prioritizing Promotion of Healthy Development and Problem Prevention

For drop-out prevention, these include:

  • Early intervention.
  • Mentoring and tutoring.
  • Service learning.
  • Conflict resolution and violence prevention curricula and training for students/staff.
  • Alternative schooling.
teacher consultants
Teacher Consultants
  • Teacher consultants develop and implement special projects

related to school-based mental health enhancement.

  • Teacher consultants serve as liaisons to the schools in efforts to promote school-based mental health programming.
  • Teacher consultants serve as informal advisers/mentors to

school staff on matters related to social-emotional adjustment and learning needs of children and school/climate issues.

incentives for teacher consultants
Incentives For Teacher Consultants

Leadership opportunity

Training opportunity

Academic credit

Stipends (“supplemental contracts”)

Empowerment

Demystification

slide25

Addressing Barriers to Learning: Annual Conference and Action Projects Program

  • Goal
    • Conduct annual conferences, to help initiate planned

local public school-based projects that reduce mental

health-related barriers to learning and enhance the

development of healthy school communities.

slide26

Objectives of Addressing Barriers to Learning Program

  • Demonstrate, produce and assess school-based mental

health practices (classroom-based, classroom-linked)

that address barriers to desired academic outcomes

and personal and social skill development.

  • Put into continuing practice that which participants learn

in conference activities and projects.

  • Increase the effectiveness of school district

collaboration and system support for school-based

mental health practices.

  • Disseminate findings.
slide27

Resources for Addressing Barriers to Learning Program

  • Researchers and practitioners whose work on the

conference theme evidences quality and the potential for

successful application locally.

  • Web-site support.
  • Resource packets.
  • Small grants to support action projects.
  • Ongoing consultation with action teams with graduate

students/faculty.

slide28

Conference Themes for Addressing Barriers to Learning Program

  • 2000 — Nonviolent Schools: Building Programs That Work

Consultants: Betty Yung and Jeremy Shapiro

  • 2001 — School, Family, and Community Partnerships

Consultants: Marc Atkins and Scott Rankin

  • 2002 — School, Family, and Community Partnerships

Consultants: Program faculty

slide29

Addressing Barriers To Learning:

School, Family, and Community Partnerships

Conference Advisory Committee:

Randy Flora Institute for Educational Renewal, MU

Joan Fopma-Loy Department of Nursing, MU

Susan Mosley-Howard Associate Dean, EAP, MU

Carl E. Paternite Department of Psychology, MU

Roberta Perlin Talawanda City Schools

Alex Thomas Dept. of Educational Psychology, MU

Valerie Ubbes Dept. of Physical Education, MU

Raymond Witte Dept. of Educational Psychology, MU

Evaluator:

Doris Bergen Dept. of Educational Psychology, MU

Contacts:

Randy Flora [email protected] (513)529-6926

203 McGuffey Hall

Oxford, OH 45056

Carl E. [email protected] (513)529-2416

Paternite Dept. of Psychology,

Benton Hall

Oxford, OH 45056

Many thanks to the members of the Conference Advisory Committee for your time and effort. Additional thanks to our funding providers, The Graduate School of Miami University and the Butler County Mental Health Board, for their support.

Addressing Barriers To Learning

School, Family, and Community Partnerships

Second Annual Conference

March 22 & 24, 2001

Marcum Conference Center

Miami University

Oxford, Ohio

Institute for Educational Renewal Based

At Miami University

Miami University Center for

School-Based Mental Health

thursday march 22 2001 5 00 p m 8 40 p m program
Thursday, March 22, 20015:00 p.m.- 8:40 p.m.PROGRAM

Saturday, March 24, 2001

7:45 a.m.– 4:00 p.m.

PROGRAM

7:45Continental Breakfast

8:15Setting the Focus on Today’s Work

Carl E. Paternite

8:30Conversation with Consultants

. A. Research-based Strategies Addressing Barriers to Learning in School Communities - Marc Atkins

B. Empowering Families and Engaging

Community Agencies for Healthy, Achieving

Children - Scott Rankin

9:15Break

9:30Conversation with Consultants Continued

10:15Break

10:30Consultants’ Synthesis From Morning Session

Marc Atkins and Scott Rankin

10:45Team Work with Technical Assistance: Clarifying Goals, Objectives, and Strategies for School Projects

11:45Lunch

12:45Review and Refocus

Marc Atkins and Scott Rankin

1:30Team Work with Technical Assistance: Refining Project Strategies and Resource Needs Resource Needs

2:15Break

2:30Assessment: Suggestions for Consideration

Doris Bergen, Dept. of Educational Psychology,

Miami University Julia Pemberton

2:45Team Work with Technical Assistance: Planning Assessment Strategies for Team Projects

3:15Budget Procedures

Randy Flora and Julia Pemberton

3:30Next Steps

Carl E. Paternite and Randy Flora

3:45Evaluation and Adjournment

Julia Pemberton

5:00 Reception - Highlights of 2000-2001 Programs

5:15Welcome and Introductions

Carl E. Paternite, Miami University Center for School-Based Mental Health Programs

5:30School, Family, and Community Partnerships Addressing Barriers to Learning - Research and Practical Applications

Marc Atkins, University of Illinois - Chicago

6:00Dinner

6:40 Under Pressure!

Lakota East High School Students with Advisors, Richard Schmaltz and Lisa Schmaltz

7:30School, Family, and Community Partnerships

Scott Rankin, Fairfax School, Hamilton County MRDD

8:00Imagining School, Family, and Community

Partnerships: Drawing the Pictures

Marc Atkins and Scott Rankin

8:35Saturday Agenda

Carl E. Paternite Randy Flora, Institute for Educational Renewal, Miami University

8:40Evaluation and Adjournment

Julia Pemberton

slide31

Addressing Barriers To Learning:

School, Family, and Community Partnerships

Conference Advisory Committee:

Randy Flora Institute for Educational Renewal, MU

Joan Fopma-Loy Department of Nursing, MU

Susan Mosley-Howard Associate Dean, EAP, MU

Carl E. Paternite Department of Psychology, MU

Roberta Perlin Talawanda City Schools

Alex Thomas Dept. of Educational Psychology, MU

Valerie Ubbes Dept. of Physical Education, MU

Raymond Witte Dept. of Educational Psychology, MU

Evaluator:

Doris Bergen Dept. of Educational Psychology, MU

Contacts:

Randy Flora [email protected] (513)529-6926

203 McGuffey Hall

Oxford, OH 45056

Carl E. [email protected] (513)529-2416

Paternite Dept. of Psychology,

Benton Hall

Oxford, OH 45056

Many thanks to the members of the Conference Advisory Committee for your time and effort. Additional thanks to our funding providers, The Graduate School of Miami University and the Butler County Mental Health Board, for their support.

Addressing Barriers To Learning

School, Family, and Community Partnerships

Second Annual Conference

March 20 & 21, 2002

Marcum Conference Center

Miami University

Oxford, Ohio

Institute for Educational Renewal Based

at Miami University

Miami University Center for

School-Based Mental Health

slide32

Thursday, March 21, 2002

8:15 a.m.- 3:00 p.m.

PROGRAM

  • Session #2 Goals
  • School-based teams refine goal statements to include outcome and process goals that include criteria/indicators for determining success.
  • Participants plan implementation strategies appropriate to the goals and criteria/indicators for determining success.
  • Participants understand their responsibilities for implementation, budget management, evaluation, and reporting.
  • Faculty consultants and graduate students are assigned to, and understand their consultation responsibilities for, each team for 2002-2003.
  • Session #1 Goals
  • Participants understand and support the purpose of the Addressing Barriers to Learning initiative.
  • Participants become aware of successful and promising school-based projects.
  • Participants strengthen their commitments to support their respective school-based projects.

Wednesday, March 20, 2002

5:15 p.m.- 8:00 p.m.

PROGRAM

8:15Continental Breakfast

8:45Today’s Agenda

Carl E. Paternite, Department of Psychology, MU

9:00Assessing Progress: Suggestions for

Consideration

Doris Bergen, Department of Educational Psychology, MU

9:30Focusing Projects on Desired Conditions and Outcomes: Knowing What You Want

Alex Thomas, Department of Educational Psychology, MU

10:00Work Session with Consultants

11:00Choosing Strategies that Earn Desired Outcomes

Ray Witte, Department of Educational Psychology, MU

11:30Lunch

12:30Work Session with Consultants

1:15Question and Answer Session

Whole Group

1:45Cross-team Conversation

Teams are paired up to describe their projects and receive constructive input on their projects

2:30Budget Procedures and Next Steps

Carl E. Paternite

2:45Evaluation and Adjournment

Julia Pemberton, Graduate Assistant, Institute for Ed. Renewal

5:15 Reception - Highlights of 2001-2002 Programs

5:45Welcome and Networking Dinner

Carl E. Paternite, Miami University Center for

School-Based Mental Health Programs

7:00Under Pressure!

Lakota East High School Students with Advisor,

Sue Bateman

7:30 Under Pressure!

Question and Answer Session with Under Pressure!

slide33

Addressing Barriers to Learning: Evaluation of 2002 Training Conference

  • Mean ratings for each training component
  • (scale: 1 = low/no usefulness; 5 = very useful)
  • Evening Session(25-26 respondents)
  • Highlights of 2001-02 Projects 4.0
  • Networking dinner 4.4
  • Youth group performance 4.8
  • Full-day Session(30-32 respondents)
  • Assessing progress 3.6
  • Desired conditions and outcomes 4.1
  • Work session with consultants #1 4.5
  • Strategies that earn desired outcomes 4.0
  • Work session with consultants #2 4.5
slide34

Addressing Barriers to Learning: Current Elementary School Action Projects

  • School-wide project focused on increasing students’ positive social skills, using monthly

themes and activities (open house nights, assemblies, community speakers). Parent

involvement in planning and implementation is emphasized.

  • School-wide project focused on “trait of the month” themes (e.g., responsibility, caring)
  • and activities (community service projects, fund raising for needy families, school-based
  • counseling groups, after school activities, peer mediation program).
  • School-wide attendance enhancement program, through improved monitoring, enhanced
  • parental involvement with an after school/evening tutoring program linked to family
  • dinner/activity events, and an attendance reward program.
  • School-wide outreach program to families (“The Road Show”) taking school informational
  • meetings into neighborhoods and communities, to overcome obstacle of the
  • geographically large catchment area and to increase family sense of engagement with the
  • school.
  • School-wide project focused on positive social skills, with emphasis on recess

programming.

slide35

Addressing Barriers to Learning: Current Elementary School Action Projects (cont’d)

  • A violence reduction program, focused on development of resource materials and use of

psychoeducational training in coping skills and strategies for at risk students.

  • School-wide family engagement project emphasizing literacy, through school-based

reading night dinner programs with storytellers and opportunities for families to read

together.

  • School-wide parent involvement and support program focused on attention to needs of
  • families, efforts to increase positive attitudes toward learning, and enhancement of social
  • skills of students, using community picnics and “Parents on Board” parenting classes.
  • School-wide program focused on understanding and appreciating difference, tolerance,

and conflict resolution skills, using curricula from the Center for Peace Education.

slide36

Addressing Barriers to Learning: Current High School Action Projects

  • Mentoring program focused on academic and personal success

of students, including a strong community service component.

  • Alternative high school service learning program incorporating

intensive involvement with a senior citizens center and tutoring in

an elementary school.

slide37

Addressing Barriers to Learning: Training in the Project Evaluation Process

    • Determine goals and objectives.
    • Determine data needed to measure desired outcomes.
    • Select measurement methods.
    • Outline data collection plan.
    • Collect data.
    • Compile, analyze, interpret, and report results.
    • Refine project based on findings.
  • Note: Dr. Doris Bergen (Miami University Center for Human Development, Learning, and
  • Teaching) has provided ongoing technical assistance on the evaluation process.
slide38

Addressing Barriers to Learning:Levels of Evaluation

  • Evaluation expected on two or more of the four levels:
  • Level 1 -- Records on planned activities.
  • Level 2 -- Self-report data from participant groups on knowledge,
  • attitudes, behaviors.
  • Level 3 -- Outcome data on student effects (attendance, office
  • referrals, grades…).
  • Level 4 -- Systematic observational data on behavior change
  • related to objectives of project.
  • Note: Dr. Doris Bergen (Miami University Center for Human Development, Learning, and
  • Teaching) has provided ongoing technical assistance on the evaluation process.
slide39

Addressing Barriers to Learning: Linking Project Objectives to Evaluation

  • “The Road Show”
  • Objectives:
    • Increase family involvement with school
    • Increase student attendance
    • Decrease discipline referrals
  • Evaluation Plan:
    • Number of positive/negative calls to school
    • “Road show” attendance rates and parent survey
    • Attendance at parent conferences
    • Student attendance rates
    • Student discipline referrals
closing observations
Closing Observations
  • Clearly, intellectual, social, and emotional education go hand-in-hand, and all are linked to creating safe schools, building healthy character, and achieving academic success:

The proper aim of education is to promote significant learning. Significant learning entails development. Development means successively asking broader and deeper questions of the relationship between oneself and the world. This is as true for first graders as it is for graduate students, for fledgling artists as graying accountants.

A good education ought to help people become more perceptive to and more discriminating about the world: seeing, feeling, and understanding more, yet sorting the pertinent from the peripheral with ever finer touch, increasingly able to integrate what they see and to make meaning of it in ways that enhance their ability to go on growing. To imagine otherwise, to act as though learning were simply a matter of stacking facts on top of one another, makes as much sense as thinking one can learn a language by memorizing a dictionary. Ideas only come to life when they root in the mind of a learner. (Daloz, 1999, p. 243)

closing observations1
Closing Observations
  • The need for increased attention to mental health promotion on behalf of youth, is quite clear:

We have a burgeoning field of developmental psychopathology but have a more diffuse body of research on the pathways whereby children and adolescents become motivated, directed, socially competent, compassionate, and psychologically vigorous adults. Corresponding to that, we have numerous research-based programs for youth aimed at curbing drug use, violence, suicide, teen pregnancy, and other problem behaviors, but lack a rigorous applied psychology of how to promote youth development.

The place for such a field is apparent to anyone who has had contact with a cross section of American adolescents. (Larson, 2000, p. 170)

closing observations2
Closing Observations
  • Certainly, educators are key partners in efforts to intervene with children in need and to promote development.
  • In fact, through their day-to-day interactions with students, educators are the linchpins of school-based efforts to encourage healthy psychological development of youth.
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