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界面化学 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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界面化学. 界面化学. 第一章 绪论 第二章 气液界面 第三章 液液界面 第四章 液固界面 第五章 固体表面 第六章 界面电现象. 第七章 纳米材料的表面化学 第八章 表面活性剂的电子结构和分子模型 第九章 现代表面分析常用技术简介. 第一章 绪论. 第一节 界面化学及其任务 第二节 弯曲液面下的附加压力 第三节 分子间力. 1.1 界面化学及其任务 界面化学:

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界面化学

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1.1



1.1AABB

1.1


1.1SS

-----


--




1.2

1.2H


31212r1r2123


pa, pa:

r1<r2;1/r1>1/r2;pa1>pa2

1

2

3

r1

r2


?,1.3.,p.

1.3


pa,, r1p+ padV dS

,padV:

W= padV 1.1


,

W= padV=dS 1.2

,().:


V=4/3r3

dV=4rdr

S= 4r

dS=8rdr

1.2

pa=dS /dV=2 /r (1.3)

pa=2 1/r


par1/r1.4

(a)1/r>0 pa>0

(b) 1/r<0 pa<0

(c) 1/r=0 pa=0

1.4


paYoung-Laplace

Pa=1/r1+1/r2)

r1 r2Young-Laplace


Pa

h

ph,1.5

1.5


p=p+ph+pa

pphpa

pa=2 1/r


r=10-8m, =58.8510-3 Nm-1

pa= 2 /r =2 58.8510-3 Nm-1 /1 10-8m=117.54Pa




1.3

(


1873


1.3.1

1912

1

Keesom


VK=-12f/R3

f=2cos1cos2sin1sin2cos(1- 2)


:VK:1\2; ,1\2;R1\2(1.6).

1

1

1

2

2

2

1.6


,, 1\2,:

EK=VKe-VK/kT

k.

VKkT,e-VK/kT:

EK= -2/312/kTR6


1=2=

EK= -2/34/kTR6

,,,.,


.Debye:,.

(2)

Debye:F,1:

1 =F

F:


1=-1/2F

().

,:

ED=-(12 +21)/R6

,:

ED=-2/R6


3London

1930


=++


1.3.2

D=3.33563 10-30C.m


1



2

TrTr14-CHCl3


CCl42012TrCCl42016633%


0.3D14-

H


H--CH3

, , , PEG27

Tr


3


A

B



1.3.3

-------------

-------------



2.1



2.2

2.2.1

pa,h


ghpa=2/r

=rgh/2

gh=0


=rgh/2


2.2.2

[2.5a][2.5b]


=gh2/2 gh


=gh2/2


2.2.3


r

pa pa=2/r


2.2.4

2rM g

Mg=2r


2F

=MgF/r =VgF /r


2.2.5

f=4r


r

f=4r

f4r


2.2.6

f

=(f-Mg)/L


fBMgL

f+B= Mg+L

ML

=(f-Mg)/L


2.3



()


,AA


BBAABB

iCiCi,i(CiV+CiV ),iini


(CiV+CiV ),ni,ni= ni- (CiV+CiV )ni,ini/Aii.,Gibbs,bS1S2,,VV.a


,i,.

S1

S2

S1

S2

(a) (b)


,i,,,,molm-2


2.4

dE=dE+dE+dE1

dE=TdS-PdV+idni2


dE=TdS-PdV+idni3

dE=TdS-PdV+idni 4

ESAni

T4

E=TS+ini+A (5)


5 dE=TdS+SdT+idni+nidi+dA+Ad (6)

(6)-(4)

SdT+nidi+Ad=0

d=-SdTidi


d=-1d1-2d2

1212121=0

21=-d/d2T


211102d2=Rtdlna,

21= -1/RT(d/dlna)

21= -a/RT(d/da) T

Ca


21= -C/RT(d/dC) T


Gibbs

d/dC21d/dC21


ddC<0>0ddC>0 <0


-


3.1

-

-


H2O=H20d+H2Oh d---- h-----

Hg=Hgd+H2Om m----


212=2d1211d

Hgd12l1l2


H2O=H2Od+H2Oh

Hg=Hgd+Hgm

H2OhHgm

210-1nm


2+272+4+271/27680


3.2

121212


12

G(1/)1/ 3=H(r3/)+1

G=3x0/2 (d2/4)1/ 3

H=d2/4

=[G1-H1(G1-G2/H1-H2)]3


G1G2H1H2GH-28.1mNm-127.7 mNm-1


3.3

-


1212 - -

1=2cos+12cos


==0

1=2+12

2121

1-2+12>0


1-2+12<0

1-2+12=S2/1

S2/121

S2/1>0 21

S2/1<0 21



S2/1S2/1>0

TP GA1A2A12 G=f A1A2A12


GA dG=(G/A1)dA1+(G/A2)dA2+(G/A12)dA12

dA2=dA12=- dA1

-dG/dA12= G/A1- G/A2- G/A12


1= G/A1 2= G/A2 12= G/A12

-dG/dA12= 1+ 2+ 12= S2/1

S2/10


-

S2/1 =72.8-28.9+34.6=9.3


S2/1 = 1 (2+ 12)

S2/1 =62.2-(28.8+34.6)=-1.2

,,,,


S2/1S2/1

S2/1


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