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School of Geography FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENT. Re-branding the city: changing the image of places and spaces. Rachael Unsworth. Outline. What is a ‘brand’? Why brand a place? Types and examples Process and problems The case of Marketing Leeds. Brand.
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FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENT
First English registered trademark 1876
Édouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergère, 1882Courtauld Institute of Art Gallery, London
Not just name, logo, website, brochure
‘Something that exists in the collective mind of the consumer’
FT article 2002
creates/changes awareness + creates/builds consumer demand for a product in an increasingly competitive market place
“Competition among cities is like riding a bicycle: if you don’t pedal, you’ll fall off.
However, globalization is making us increasingly uniform, so we must construct and promote our difference in order to continue existing”
Mirón, Urban Land Institute
Kavaratzis M. and Ashworth, G.J. (2005) City branding: an effective assertion of identity or a transitory marketing trick?
The part of the value proposition communicated to a target group that demonstrates
How the brand is perceived
Kavaratzis M. and Ashworth, G.J. (2005) p.508
argues for 3 conceptions of distinctiveness: functional, physical and intangible
warns against flashy iconic developments or image campaigns not based on an underlying reality
Positive images of the city – heritage, up-market, new facilities, public realm, waterfront, sunshine
Ordinary scenes, social divide, dereliction, abandonment, rain
Brahm report 2003
Senior Planner from Gothenburg,
Vision for Leeds workshop, July 2002
An Agency Called England asked:
‘If Leeds was a person, what sort of person would it be?’
A young male, friendly, your best friend, a really nice person to know, an ambitious person, living in a trendy apartment, driving a VW Golf GTi
Thompson Design v. An Agency Called England
Chris Moyles & Gabby Logan
A new slogan aimed at boosting the global image of Leeds is the same as one used in a 2003 campaign in Hong Kong
Chief Executive sacked
Debbie Green brought in
Supporting current events and activities
Thought Leadership – Technical
Thought Leadership – Social Networking
Thought Leadership – ‘The Business’ Series – Leeds as a centre of innovation:
minimal costs in use – efficient, low maintenance
cope with heat, cold, excess water or drought
flexible: long life, loose fit
improved connectivity – transport & remote
effective, multi-purpose green infrastructure
People – households, institutions, communities, businesses:
forward thinking + contingency plans
genuine community involvement & neighbourliness
mixed use & diversity as a strength
creativity and innovation valued
appropriate use of technology
enhanced cultural activitiesResilient places with resilient populations
Attractive, adaptable, well-connected places where people can enjoy high levels of well-being, make minimal impact on the environment and suffer minimal threat to their safety, security and comfort
Ashworth , G.J. and Voogd, H. (1990), Selling the City: Marketing Approaches in Public Sector Urban Planning, London: Belhaven Press.
Boyle, M. and Rogerson, R.J. (2001) Power, discourse and city trajectories, in Paddison, R. (ed.) Handbook of Urban Studies, London: Sage, pp.402-416.
Florian, B. (2002) The City as a Brand: Orchestrating a Unique Experience. In: T. Hauben, M.
Vermeulen & V. Patteeuw, City Branding: Image Building and Building Images. Rotterdam: NAI Uitgevers.
Gold, J.R. & Ward, S.V., eds. (1994), Place promotion: the use of publicity and marketing to sell towns and regions. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.
Hankinson, G.A. and Cowking, P. (1995) ‘What do you really mean by a brand?’ Journal of Brand Management, 3(1), pp.43-50.
Hankinson, G.A. (2001), Location branding: a study of the branding practices of 12 English cities.
Journal of Brand Management 9, pp.127–142.
Hauben, T., Vermeulen, M. & Patteeuw, V. (2002), City Branding: Image Building and Building Images.
Rotterdam: NAI Uitgevers.
Kavaratzis, M. (2004), From City Marketing to City Branding: Towards a Theoretical Framework for
Developing City Brands. Journal of Place Branding 1, pp. 58–73.
Kavaratzis, M. and Ashworth, G.J. (2005)City branding: an effective assertion of identity or a transitory marketing trick? Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 96(5), pp. 506–514.
Kearns, G. and Philo, C. eds. (1993), Selling Places, Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Scott, N. (2005) ‘Brand loyalty’, Yorkshire Evening Post: Marketing Leeds Special Supplement, 27 September.
Trueman, M., Klemm, M. and Giroud, A. (2004), Can a city communicate? Bradford as a corporate
brand. Corporate Communications: An International Journal 9, pp.317–330.
Urwin, C. (2006) Urban myth: why cities don’t compete, Discussion Paper no. 5, Centre for Cities, London.
Ward, S.V. (1998), Selling places: the marketing and promotion of towns and cities 1850–2000. London: E & FN Spon.