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Table of Contents. Elements and Atoms Atoms, Bonding, and the Periodic Table Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Bonding in Metals. - Elements and Atoms. The Building Blocks of Matter. Matter may consist of elements, compounds, or mixtures. - Elements and Atoms. Atomic Theory and Models.

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Table of contents
Table of Contents

  • Elements and Atoms

  • Atoms, Bonding, and the Periodic Table

  • Ionic Bonds

  • Covalent Bonds

  • Bonding in Metals


The building blocks of matter

- Elements and Atoms

The Building Blocks of Matter

  • Matter may consist of elements, compounds, or mixtures.


Atomic theory and models

- Elements and Atoms

Atomic Theory and Models

  • Dalton thought that atoms were like smooth, hard balls that could not be broken into smaller pieces.


Atomic theory and models1

- Elements and Atoms

Atomic Theory and Models

  • Thomson suggested that atoms had negatively charged electrons embedded in a positive sphere.


Atomic theory and models2

- Elements and Atoms

Atomic Theory and Models

  • Rutherford was surprised that a few particles were deflected strongly. This led him to propose an atomic model with a positively charged nucleus.


Learning objective
Learning Objective

  • Determine the number of valence of electrons of any atom of any element in the Main Groups of the Periodic Table.

  • Determine how the reactivity of elements is related to the number of valence electrons.


Atomic theory and models lab notebook

- Elements and Atoms

Atomic Theory and Models (Lab Notebook)

  • It was determined that electrons orbited around the nucleus in certain patterns (called orbitals) based upon their energy level (amt. of energy they hold).

  • It was also discovered that the first orbital (closest to the nucleus) could have a maximum of 2 electrons. Each of the ones that followed could only have a maximum of 8 electrons.

  • The outermost electrons are called valence electrons. These are important for bonding and chemical reactions.


Phosphorus example
Phosphorus Example

  • Phosphorus’ atomic number is 15, so it has…

  • 15 protons and 15 electrons (since it’s neutral).

  • The circles surrounding the nucleus represent the different energy levels within the atom.

+15



Valence electrons and bonding

- Atoms, Bonding, and the Periodic Table

Valence Electrons and Bonding

  • The number of valence electrons in an atom of an element determines many properties of that element, and an atom with 8 valence electrons is very non-reactive because it cannot “use” anymore valence electrons.


The periodic table

- Atoms, Bonding, and the Periodic Table

The Periodic Table

  • As the number of protons (atomic number) increases, the number of electrons also increases. As a result, the properties of the elements change in a regular way across a period.


Groups families of elements experiment
Groups/Families of Elements Experiment

  • Goals- (1) Determine the chemical properties of how elements in the same group vs. a different group react with silver. (2) Determine the formulas for the compounds formed.

  • Procedure (Forming Silver precipitates/silver solids):

  • Add drops of silver nitrate and potassium chloride as indicated by the diagram (11:1 = 11 drops of silver nitrate & 1 drop of potassium chloride). Record results…

    • Properties of the compound that formed in your data table.

    • Proportion that produced the MOST precipitate.

    • Formula based upon the proportion (ex.- 6:6, 5:7, 7:5 = 1 of each = AgCl, 8:4 = Ag2Cl, 4:8 = AgCl2, 9:3 = Ag3Cl, etc.)

  • Rinse your Chemplate or use another one and repeat step 1 with potassium bromide.

  • Repeat with potassium iodide.

  • Repeat with potassium sulfide.


Data table conclusions
Data Table & Conclusions

Conclusion- Which elements appear to be in the same group/family? Why?


End of section atoms bonding and the periodic table
End of Section:Atoms, Bonding, and the Periodic Table


Learning objectives
Learning Objectives

  • Describe ions and how they form bonds between atoms.

  • Write the formulas and names of ionic compounds.


Formation of magnesium oxide
Formation of Magnesium Oxide

  • Charge of MgCharge of O

Overall Charge


Ions and ionic bonds

- Ionic Bonds

Ions and Ionic Bonds

  • When an atom loses an electron, it loses a negative charge and become a positive ion. When an atom gains an electron, it gains a negative charge and becomes a negative ion.


Formation of sodium chloride
Formation of Sodium Chloride

  • Charge of NaCharge of Cl

Overall Charge


Ions and ionic bonds1

- Ionic Bonds

Ions and Ionic Bonds

  • Ionic bonds form as a result of the attraction between positive and negative ions.


Ions and ionic bonds2

- Ionic Bonds

Ions and Ionic Bonds

  • Ions are atoms that have lost or gained electrons. See page 23.

  • WHEN OPPOSITELY CHARGED IONS BOND, they form compounds with a 0 OVERALL ELECTRIC CHARGE and EACH ION HAS 8 VALENCE ELECTRONS (or the maximum amount)!!!


Writing formulas for ionic compounds
Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds

  • The number afterthe element symbol tells you the number of atoms of that element!

  • Ex.- CaCl2 (1calcium ion & 2chloride ions)






Charge of ions their group number from the left from the right not counting group 18
Charge of Ions & Their Group Number: from the left (+) & from the right (-) not counting Group 18



The reason that most atoms (outside of hydrogen and helium) will form ions is that they want _________ valence electrons

  • 2

  • 8

  • 16

  • 0


When an atom gains an electron it forms a
When an atom gains an electron, it forms a will form ions is that they want _________ valence electrons

  • Positive ion.

  • Negative ion.

  • Neutral ion.

  • A new element.


When an atom loses an electron it forms an ion with a
When an atom loses an electron, it forms an ion with a will form ions is that they want _________ valence electrons

  • Positive charge.

  • Negative charge.

  • Neutral charge.

  • No charge.


An ionic bond forms when oppositely charged ions
An ionic bond forms when oppositely charged ions will form ions is that they want _________ valence electrons

  • Disconnect.

  • Repel.

  • Attract.

  • Reconnect.


The overall charge for an ionic compound is always
The overall charge for an ionic compound is always will form ions is that they want _________ valence electrons

  • Unknown.

  • Negative.

  • Positive.

  • 0 or neutral.


Ionic review unknown ion demo silver precipitates ion chart is on p 23
Ionic Review: Unknown Ion Demo & Silver Precipitates (Ion chart is on p. 23)

  • Demo: Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) reacts with glycerin (C3H8O3) in a delayed reaction to produce water, carbon dioxide, manganese dioxide, and potassium carbonate. The reason they KMnO4 is so reactive is due to the large number of oxygen atoms (4 of them) that are contained within that ionic compound.

  • These compounds are called oxidizers because they add oxygen to whatever they react with and cause that substance to lose electrons to the oxidizer.

  • Also, MnO4 is the negative ion in KMnO4. What is the charge of MnO4 (the permanganate ion)?

  • Expt: Determine the charge of a silver ion (Ag) for the precipitates you formed in the Families of Elements experiment: AgCl, AgBr, AgI, Ag2S

  • *Note that the ratio of the silver ion to the negative ion is different for silver sulfide (Ag2S) due to the fact that the sulfide ion has a different charge and is in a different group on the periodic table.


Previewing visuals

- Ionic Bonds chart is on p. 23)

Previewing Visuals

  • Before you read, preview Figure 17. Then write two questions that you have about the diagram in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, answer your questions.

Formation of an Ionic Bond

Q. What is an ionic bond?

A. An ionic bond is the attraction between two oppositely charged ions.

Q. What is the overall charge on an ionic compound?

A. Overall, an ionic compound is electrically neutral.


- Ionic Bonds chart is on p. 23)

Salt

  • Click the Video button to watch a movie about salt.


Links on ionic compounds

- Ionic Bonds chart is on p. 23)

Links on Ionic Compounds

  • Click the SciLinks button for links on ionic compounds.


End of section ionic bonds
End of Section: chart is on p. 23)Ionic Bonds


Noggin knockers 10 points 2 pts each
Noggin Knockers (10 points- 2 pts. each) chart is on p. 23)

  • What are the two ways that ions can form from neutral atoms?

  • Explain how a sodium ion forms. Explain how a chloride ion forms.

  • What holds the ions together in the compound sodium chloride?

  • The formula for sodium sulfide is Na2S. Explain what this formula means in terms of the number of each ion.

  • Write the chemical formula for calcium chloride.


Noggin knockers hwk 10 points
Noggin Knockers/Hwk. (10 points) chart is on p. 23)

  • 1 (2 points)- Atoms gain or lose electrons to form ions.

  • 2 (2 points)- Sodium loses an electron to become a positive ion (Na+1) while chlorine gains that electron to form a negative ion (Cl-1)

  • 3 (2 points)- The attraction of opposite charges hold the ions together in any ionic compound.

  • 4 (2 points)- For Na2S means that there are 2 sodium ionsfor everyone sulfide ion.

  • 5 (2 points)-CaCl2, there is one calcium ion (Ca+2) and two chloride ions (Cl-1) to create calcium chloride (overall charge = 0)


Learning objectives1
Learning Objectives chart is on p. 23)

  • State what holds covalently bonded atoms together.

  • Predict how molecular compounds are bonded together. Molecular compoundsare those with covalent bonds instead of ionic bonds.


Covalent bonding examples lab notebook
Covalent Bonding Examples (Lab Notebook) chart is on p. 23)

  • CO2

  • NH3


Noggin knockers
Noggin Knockers chart is on p. 23)


Covalent Bonds- chart is on p. 23) Determine the # of valence electrons for each atom and then arrange the electrons so that each atom has the correct number when sharing each other’s electrons. (Lab Notebook)

  • Examples: CO2 NH3

  • Cl2

  • F2

  • H2

  • O2

  • N2

  • CO (tough one)

  • H2O (Oxygen is the central atom)

  • For the following models, determine the number of “extra” electrons 1st based upon the charge, know that the central atom is the first one in the formula, & sulfur and phosphorus can have more than 8 valence electrons:

  • (8) SO4-2, (9) CO3-2, (10) PO4-3, (11) NH4+1


Learning objectives2
Learning Objectives chart is on p. 23)

  • State what holds covalently bonded atoms together.

  • Predict how molecular compounds are bonded together. Molecular compoundsare those with covalent bonds instead of ionic bonds.



Covalent Bonds- chart is on p. 23) Determine the # of valence electrons for each atom and then arrange the electrons so that each atom has the correct number when sharing each other’s electrons. (Lab Notebook)

  • If finished with the ones below try: S2, I2, &CH4then try 8-11.

  • Cl2

  • F2

  • H2

  • O2

  • N2

  • CO (tough one)

  • H2O (Oxygen is the central atom)

  • For the following models, determine the number of “extra” electrons 1st based upon the charge, know that the central atom is the first one in the formula, & sulfur and phosphorus can have more than 8 valence electrons (up to 12 valence electrons):

  • (8) SO4-2, (9) CO3-2, (10) PO4-3, (11) NH4+1


How covalent bonds form

- Covalent Bonds chart is on p. 23)

How Covalent Bonds Form

  • The force that holds atoms together in a covalent bond is the attraction of each atom’s nucleus for the shared pair of electrons.


How covalent bonds form1

- Covalent Bonds chart is on p. 23)

How Covalent Bonds Form

  • An oxygen molecule contains one double bond (2 pairs of shared electrons), while a carbon dioxide molecule has two double bonds. A nitrogen molecule contains one triple bond (3 pairs of shared electrons).


Covalent bonding review think pair share
Covalent Bonding Review: Think-Pair-Share chart is on p. 23)

  • How many valence electrons do all atoms but Hydrogen and Helium want?

  • Covalent bonding involves the _______ of electrons as oppose to forming oppositely charged ions.

  • A single covalent bond involves ____ pair(s) of shared electrons, while a double bond involves ____ pair(s) of shared electrons.

  • These shared electrons are attracted to the other atom’s positively charged ________.


Noggin knockers1
Noggin Knockers chart is on p. 23)


Learning objectives3
Learning Objectives chart is on p. 23)

  • Compare and contrast ionic and molecular compounds in terms of their structure, melting & boiling points, and ability to conduct electricity in water.

  • Ionic (Salt = NaCl & Calcium chloride = CaCl2)

  • Molecular (Water = H2O, Sugar = C12H22O11 & Rubbing Alcohol = C3H8O)

  • Vinegar?

  • Explain how unequal sharing of electrons occurs and how it relates to the polarity of the molecules.


Properties of ionic compounds notes

- Ionic Bonds chart is on p. 23)

Properties of Ionic Compounds (Notes)

  • In general, ionic compounds are hard, brittle crystals that have high melting points. When dissolved in water or melted, they conduct electricity b/c they break up into ions!


Comparing molecular and ionic compounds

- Covalent Bonds chart is on p. 23)

Comparing Molecular and Ionic Compounds

  • The table compares the melting points and boiling points of a few molecular compounds and ionic compounds.


Which type of compound has lower melting and boiling points ionic or molecular
Which type of compound has chart is on p. 23)lower melting and boiling points: ionic or molecular?

  • Ionic

  • Molecular

  • They both have the same melting points.

  • Neither have lower melting points.


Why do molecular compounds have lower melting and boiling points than ionic compounds
Why do molecular compounds have lower melting and boiling points than ionic compounds?

  • Because they are made up of strongly attracted ions.

  • Actually, ionic compounds have the lower melting and boiling points.

  • There’s a stronger attraction between each of the many molecules that make up the compound.

  • There’s a weaker attraction between each of the many molecules that make up the compound.


Which type of compound can conduct electricity in water
Which type of compound can conduct electricity in water? points than ionic compounds?

  • Ionic

  • Molecular

  • They both can.

  • Neither compound can.


Why can ionic compounds conduct electricity in water
Why can ionic compounds conduct electricity in water? points than ionic compounds?

  • The ions stay together in water.

  • They can’t. Only molecular compounds can.

  • They break up into oppositely charged ions.

  • Because water can conduct electricity.


Learning objectives4
Learning Objectives points than ionic compounds?

  • Explain how unequal sharing of electrons occurs and how it relates to the polarity of the molecules.

    • Why things mix together and others do not.


Unequal sharing of electrons polarity partial charges
Unequal Sharing of Electrons (Polarity & Partial Charges) points than ionic compounds?

  • Oil vs. Water’s Intermolecular Attractions

  • Oil’s structure (mostly non-polar):

  • Water’s structure (Polar due to oxygen’s pull on the e-):


Unequal sharing of electrons

- Covalent Bonds points than ionic compounds?

Unequal Sharing of Electrons

  • Fluorine forms a nonpolar bond with another fluorine atom. In hydrogen fluoride, fluorine attracts electrons more strongly than hydrogen does (just like oxygen), so the bond formed is polar.


Unequal sharing of electrons1

- Covalent Bonds points than ionic compounds?

Unequal Sharing of Electrons

  • A carbon dioxide molecule is a nonpolar molecule because of its straight-line shape. In contrast, a water molecule is a polar molecule because of its bent shape.


Unequal sharing of electrons polarity partial charges1
Unequal Sharing of Electrons (Polarity & Partial Charges) points than ionic compounds?

  • Oil vs. Water’s Intermolecular Attractions

  • Oil’s structure (mostly non-polar):

  • Water’s structure (Polar due to oxygen’s pull on the e-):


Like dissolves like water rubbing alcohol
Like Dissolves Like (Water & Rubbing Alcohol) points than ionic compounds?


Noggin knockers 8 points
Noggin Knockers (8 points) points than ionic compounds?

  • 1 (2 points)- Hard, brittle crystals; higher melting & boiling points; conduct electricity in water.

  • 2 (1 point)-4 valence electrons

  • 3 (1 point)- They do not break up into ions or they have no charges

  • 4 (2 points)- Share electrons unequally; polar covalent bonds

  • 5 (2 points)-Water, b/c there’s a stronger attraction between water molecules than between carbon dioxide molecules


Noggin knockers2
Noggin Knockers points than ionic compounds?


Asking questions

Question points than ionic compounds?

Answer

- Covalent Bonds

Asking Questions

  • Before you read, preview the red headings. In a graphic organizer like the one below, ask a what or how question for each heading. As you read, write answers to your questions.

How do covalent bonds form?

Covalent bonds form when two atoms share electrons.

What are molecular compounds?

Molecular compounds are compounds that contain molecules bonded with covalent bonds.

How does unequal sharing of electrons affect the atoms in molecular compounds?

Unequal sharing of electrons causes the bonded atoms to have slight electrical charges.


Links on molecular compounds

- Covalent Bonds points than ionic compounds?

Links on Molecular Compounds

  • Click the SciLinks button for links on molecular compounds.


End of section covalent bonds
End of Section: points than ionic compounds?Covalent Bonds


Metallic bonding

- Bonding in Metals points than ionic compounds?

Metallic Bonding

  • A metal crystal consists of positively charged metal ions embedded in a “sea” of valence electrons.


Metallic properties

- Bonding in Metals points than ionic compounds?

Metallic Properties

  • The “sea of electrons” model of solid metals explains their ability to conduct heat and electricity, the ease with which they can be made to change shape, and their luster.


Relating cause and effect

- Bonding in Metals points than ionic compounds?

Relating Cause and Effect

  • As you read, identify the properties of metals that result from metallic bonding. Write the information in a graphic organizer like the one below.

Effects

Electrical conductivity

Heat conductivity

Cause

Metallic bonding

Ductility

Malleability

Luster


Links on metallic bonding

- Bonding in Metals points than ionic compounds?

Links on Metallic Bonding

  • Click the SciLinks button for links on metallic bonding.


End of section bonding in metals
End of Section: points than ionic compounds?Bonding in Metals


Graphic organizer
Graphic Organizer points than ionic compounds?

Polar Covalent Bond

Nonpolar Covalent Bond

Metallic Bond

Feature

Ionic Bond

Attraction between positive ions and surrounding electrons.

Attraction between oppositely charged ions

How Bond Forms

Equal sharing of electrons

Unequal sharing of electrons

Charge on Bonded Atoms?

Yes, slightly positive or slightly negative

Yes; positive or negative

No

Yes; positive

H2O molecule (or other polar covalent molecule)

NaCl crystal (or other ionic compound)

Example

Calcium (or other metal)

O2 molecule


End of section graphic organizer
End of Section: points than ionic compounds?Graphic Organizer


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