Case study III
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Case study III The continental scale: home ranges. Species differ in home range Home ranges may be continuous or scattered. Scattered distributions might not allow for any gene flow. Such regional subpopulation quickly evolve into new species .

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Case study III The continental scale: home ranges

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Case study iii the continental scale home ranges

Case study III

The continental scale: home ranges

Species differ in home range

Home ranges may be continuous or scattered.

Scattered distributions might not allow for any gene flow. Such regional subpopulation quickly evolve into new species


Case study iii the continental scale home ranges

Many species have seasonal migrations. Then summer and winter home ranges differ.


Case study iii the continental scale home ranges

The UTM grid of Poland used for species distribution atlases

No gene flow

Regression analysis with environmental factors allows for the assessment of habitat preferences.

Relict species

Introduced species

Habitat specialists

Philaeus chrysops


Case study iii the continental scale home ranges

Case study III

The continental scale: home ranges

olocene

Miocene

Pliocene

Pleistocene

H

S Alps

Podarcis muralis

C Balkans

E France

Languedoc

W France

Marche

Venetian

Romagna

Tuscany

Calabria

P. liolepis

P. lsiculus

P. melidellensis

Substitutions

How did Podarcismuraliscolonise Europe aft the glacial period?

How will the species spread in the face of climate change?


Case study iii the continental scale home ranges

Species distribution modelling (MaxEnt) under five different climatic scenarios


Case study iii the continental scale home ranges

Colonisation gradient

Sites sorted according to allele richness

Sites sorted according to distance from Athens

Founder effects

Ordered genetic loss

Popu-lations

The map of 144 alleles from 10 loci spread across 20 sites from southern and western Europe

Relict populations

Vicariant (scattered) genetic loss

The mean number of elleles per locus decreases with distance from Greece


Case study iii the continental scale home ranges

A nestedpatternof allele loss with unexpectedabsences and presences

A perfectlynestedpatternof allele loss

Rows and columnsaresortedaccording to speciesrichness

Unexpectedabsences

Unexpectedpresences

A matrixsorted to maximise the number of occurrencesalong the diagonale reveals the degree of allele turnover in the population

A randommatrix


Case study iii the continental scale home ranges

The ordered (nested) loss of alleles along putative cpolonisation gradients

Eastern limeage with ordered loss of alleles along the colonisation gradient

Western limeage with ordered loss of alleles along the colonisation gradient

Intermediate situation


Case study iii the continental scale home ranges

Balkans and Italy

Seriation : sorting the matrix according to reciprocal averaging.

Occurrences are maximised along the matrix diagonal.

Eastern and western clades do not completely overlap in allele distribution.

Apparently we have two postglacial colonisation trajectories: from Spain and from the Balkans.

olocene

Pleistocene

H

S Alps

C Balkans

Eastern Clade

E France

Languedoc

W France

0.4 my

Western Clade

Marche

Venetian

Italian Clade

Romagna

Tuscany

Western France

Calabria

1.2 my


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