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STAAR Reporting Category 1 Matter & Energy. Middle School Science Science STAAR Need to Know. Atomic Theory. Atoms are building blocks of elements Atoms in each unique element are the same. (Ex: Every oxygen element has the same # of protons)

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Staar reporting category 1 matter energy

STAAR Reporting Category 1Matter & Energy

Middle School Science

Science STAAR Need to Know

STAAR Need to Know


Atomic theory
Atomic Theory

  • Atoms are building blocks of elements

  • Atoms in each unique element are the same. (Ex: Every oxygen element has the same # of protons)

  • Atoms are different from atoms of other elements (Ex: Hydrogen has a different # of protons than oxygen)

  • Two or more different atoms bond in simple ratios to form compounds (Ex: Hydrogen & oxygen can chemically combine to form water- H2O )

STAAR Need to Know


solid

liquid

gas

STAAR Need to Know



Atoms and elements
Atoms and Elements

STAAR Need to Know


Atomic particle charges
Atomic Particle Charges

Protons Positive +

Neutrons Neutral =

Electrons Negative -

STAAR Need to Know


Location of subatomic particles
Location of Subatomic Particles

10-13 cm

electrons

protons

neutrons

10-8 cm

nucleus

STAAR Need to Know


Location of atomic particles

Inside the Nucleus

Protons with a Positive charge

AND

Neutrons with a Neutral charge –that means they do not have a charge

Outside the Nucleus- in electron cloud

Electrons with a Negative charge

Did you know electrons are very, very small and move very, very fast???

Location of Atomic Particles

STAAR Need to Know


Periodic squares
Periodic Squares

11

Na

22.99

The periodic square for an element can tell you lots of information about that atom.

Atomic number = # of protons

Atomic number = # of electrons

That means in a neutral (uncharged) atom the # of protons and electrons are always the SAME!!!!

STAAR Need to Know


Atomic mass on the periodic table
Atomic Mass on the Periodic Table

11

Na

22.99

Atomic Number

or Protons

Symbol

Atomic Mass or

Protons + neutrons

STAAR Need to Know


Atomic number
Atomic number

Atomic number =

# of Protons

STAAR Need to Know


Mass number
Mass Number

The number

of

protons andneutrons

in an atom

STAAR Need to Know


Number of electrons
Number of Electrons

  • A balanced atom is neutral

  • The net overall charge is zero

  • Number of protons = Number of electrons

  • Atomic number = Number of electrons

STAAR Need to Know





Elements with similar properties are placed in the same group in the periodic table.

The stair-step line separates the elements into metals and nonmetals.

STAAR Need to Know


Metals nonmetals
Metals & Nonmetals group in the periodic table.

STAAR Need to Know


26 group in the periodic table.

30

26

Ru and Os

12

12

12

Ca and Sr

126

82

82

Sn and Ge

7

7

7

P and As

STAAR Need to Know


Molecules compounds
Molecules & Compounds group in the periodic table.

STAAR Need to Know


Pure substances group in the periodic table.

Compounds

STAAR Need to Know


Mixtures
Mixtures group in the periodic table.

Combination of two or more pure substances. Substances are mixed together but have not reacted to form any new molecules.

Example- Sugar (a compound) dissolves in water (a compound) to form a mixture. The molecules of sugar and water do not change chemically. They just become mixed together.

STAAR Need to Know


Properties of matter group in the periodic table.

Physical properties – can be observed without changing the substance into a different substance.

STAAR Need to Know


Chemical properties
Chemical Properties group in the periodic table.

Characteristics of a substance that are observed when it reacts (changes) to produce one or more different substances.

Example- Water can be changed into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas using an electric current. When water molecules change chemically into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas, we say that a chemical change has occurred. Hydrogen gas and oxygen gas each have a different set of properties.

Substances change into different substances through chemical reactions.

STAAR Need to Know


Chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions group in the periodic table.

Substances change into other substances in chemical reactions.

The atoms in the original substance are rearranged. The bonds in the original substance may be broken and new bonds may be formed between different atoms. This produces one or more new substances that may be either pure elements or compounds.

The products of a chemical reaction always have difference chemical and physical properties than the original substance(s).

STAAR Need to Know


Evidence of a chemical reaction
Evidence of a Chemical Reaction group in the periodic table.

  • a change in odor,

  • a change in color,

  • a solid precipitate is formed,

  • a gas is formed,

  • there is either absorption or release of heat

STAAR Need to Know


STAAR Need to Know group in the periodic table.


STAAR Need to Know group in the periodic table.


Chemical equations
Chemical Equations group in the periodic table.

STAAR Need to Know


Balancing Equations group in the periodic table.

STAAR Need to Know


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