AQA REVISION POWERPOINT POPULATION. Make sure you are familiar with the content of these slides. Population Density. Is the number of people living in a given area (usually expressed per square km). It is calculated by dividing the total population by the total area.
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AQA REVISION POWERPOINT
Make sure you are familiar with the content of these slides.
World population distribution.
The most densely populated areas are shown in red and pink (more than 100 people per km2)
The most sparsely populated areas are shown in white. (fewer than 2 people per km2)
The world's population is growing very rapidly. In 1820 the world's population reached 1 billion. In 1990 it reached 6 billion people.
This rapid growth in population has been called a population explosion.
Demographic Transition Model
Stage 1Birth rate and death rate are high - low natural increase - low total population
Stage 3Falling birth rate - low death rate - high natural increase (population growth)
Stage 2 Birth rate is high - death rate is falling - high natural increase (population growth)
Stage 4Birth rate and death rate is low - low natural increase - high total population
The Demographic Transition Model does not take into account migration.
Why high birth rates?
In many countries where people are subsistence farmers, children are needed to work on the farms.
Some religions eg. Roman Catholicism and Islam forbid the use of contraception
In places where death rates and infant mortality rates are high, families have large numbers of children to ensure some survive into adulthood.
In many countries where there is no state pension, people have many children so they can provide for them in their old age.
Why low birth rates?
Contraception is widely available in MEDC’s- giving people choice about family size.
Many women put their careers first, marry later and therefore have less children.
Because of low death rates people in MEDCs need fewer children. They are not needed to work or farms or support the elderly.
Children are expensive to provide for, many young people have only one child, or none at all.
Why high death rates?
Limited access to health care means even simple illnesses eg. Diarrhoea can be fatal.
A poor and unvaried diet does not provide essential nutrients.
Poor sanitation systems again cause disease and illness resulting in a high death rate.
No access to a clean water supply means that diseases like cholera and typhoid take many lives.
Why low death rates?
Health care facilities in MEDCs are modern and hi-tech meaning many diseases can now be cured.
A well varied diet means people get all the nutrients they need to be healthy
Modern sanitation systems mean that the threat of disease is minimal therefore the death rate is reduced.
Access to a clean water supply means that diseases like cholera and typhoid have died out.
Three Patterns of Population Change, 2000
Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects, The 1998 Revision.
A wide base = high birth rate.
A narrow top= low life expectancy
A ‘step’ between each age group = high death rate.
Typical LEDC stage 2 of the DTM.
A narrow base = low birth rate.
A tall pyramid with a wide top= high life expectancy
An MEDC stage 4
A very narrow base = low birth rate.
A tall pyramid with a wide top= high life expectancy
Fewer births than deaths.
MEDC stage 5
Age-Sex Structures in Transition
Both graphs give useful information about each country- especially highlighting the numbers of economically active (those who are capable of working, earning and paying taxes) and those who are dependent on the economically active eg. The young and the elderly dependents.
• Some local councils have high numbers of elderly people, because many people move to England’s warm southerly coasts when they retire (e.g. Christchurch in Dorset)
• The high cost of providing long term, expensive healthcare for some elderly people .
• There is an increasing demand for certain facilities such as public transport, geriatric health care and sheltered housing.
The UK’s population could stop growing or decline which makes the problem worse because there will be fewer and fewer economically active people.
• The burden of these extra costs will fall on the economically active population who will pay higher taxes and higher pension contributions. The retirement age is having to increase to cope with the problem.
People may migrate because of poor conditions where they live- these negative factors are called push factors
Lack of jobs or job opportunities
Poor quality of life
Poor levels of pay and conditions
Poor health and education services.
Climatic hazard eg drought leading to crop failure.
Isolated – few transport links, few leisure facilities
People may migrate because they are attracted to conditions elsewhere- these positive reasons are called pull factors
Better quality of life
Perception of better quality of life.
Chance to earn more money
Range of health and education services.
Less likelihood of natural hazards.
Entertainment and facilities.
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Images used to promote the one child policy
Many people claim that some women, who became pregnant after they had already had a child, were forced to have an abortion and many women were forcibly sterilised. There appears to be a lot of evidence to back up these claims.
The one-child policy, established in 1979, meant that each couple was allowed just one child.
Fines were placed on families that had more than one child.
The one-child policy was keenly resisted in rural areas, where it was traditional to have large families The one-child policy has been enforced strictly in urban areas, but remote rural areas have been harder to control.
Benefits, including access to education, childcare and health care, were offered to families that followed this rule, and withdrawn from those that had further children
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Western Europe is densely populated. With it’s temperate climate (no extremes of hot and cold) and fertile land it is ideal for growing crops and rearing animals. There are good communications and many large cities with many job opportunities eg. London-which also has entertainment, good health care and education. In addition the countries of Western Europe have political and religious freedom and non-oppressive regimes- making it an attractive place for people to live.
The Sahara desert is sparsely populated. With constantly hot temperatures (+40C) during the day, and very little rainfall (1mm a year at Aswan in Egypt) the Sahara’s climate is difficult for people to live with. There is no soil- therefore agriculture cannot take place and with a limited water supply it is difficult for human life to survive. The sand drifts in sand storms. It is also very isolated, with poor communications, limited accommodation, few job opportunities- all of which fail to encourage people to live in a particular place.
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