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Crystal technology at PNPI. Yuri M.Ivanov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. PNPI involved in channeling studies since 1970s: 1979 - prediction of volume capture effect in bent crystals ( O.I.Sumbaev )

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crystal technology at pnpi

Crystal technology at PNPI

Yuri M.Ivanov

Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute

slide2

PNPI involved in channeling studies since1970s:

1979 - prediction of volume capture effect in bent crystals (O.I.Sumbaev)

1982 - observation of volume capture effect with 1GeV protons at PNPI (V.M.Samsonov, O.I.Sumbaev et al.)

1987 - invention of crystal design to focus charged particle beams(A.I.Smirnov)

1989-1992 - spin precession of particles channeled inbent crystal at FNAL

1991-1995 - focusing of proton beam at IHEP

1993-1996 - extraction of proton beam from Tevatronat FNAL

1997-2004 - multi-turn extraction and collimation of proton beam at IHEP

processing of the crystals
Processing of the crystals

Orienting with X-rays

Cutting

Grinding and polishing

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

double crystal x ray spectrometer
Double crystal X-ray spectrometer

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

scheme of rocking curve measurement
Scheme of rocking curve measurement

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

focusing with bent crystal
Focusing with bent crystal

A.I.Smirnov 1987 Experiment PNPI-IHEP 1991

F2 = 4r2 – R2

F - focal distance

R - bending radius of the crystal

r - radius of the exit crystal face

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

samples of focusing crystals
Samples of focusing crystals

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

main results with focusing crystals
Main results with focusing crystals
  • Focusing of 1-5 mm parallel beam into 30-50 micron line at distances 1-10 m
  • Deflection and transformation of divergent beams
  • New approach to prepare secondary particle beams

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

deflection and transformation of divergent beams
Deflection and transformation of divergent beams

Experiment IHEP-PNPI 1995

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

new approach to formation of secondary particle beams with focusing crystals
New approach to formation of secondary particle beams with focusing crystals

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

multi pass extraction of proton beam with short bent crystals
Multi-pass extraction of proton beam with short bent crystals

IHEP-PNPI 1998

  • Short bent crystal - to deflect beam into septum aperture
  • Magnet system - to extract beam

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

requirements for crystal
Requirements for crystal
  • Hight of working area ~5 mm
  • Width of working area ~1 mm
  • Length along beam 0.5-5 mm
  • Thickness of broken layer ~0.001 mm
  • Precision of orientation ~0.3 mrad
  • Bending angle 1-2 mrad

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

o crystal design
O-crystal design

Typicaldimensions5 x 5 x 50 mm3

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

samples of o crystals prepared in pnpi
Samples of O-crystals prepared in PNPI

Slide taken from report to EPAC02 (Paris, France) on Crystal Collimation at RHIC

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

typical interference pattern from a bent face of the o crystals
Typical interference pattern from a bent face of the O-crystals

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

main results with o crystals at ihep
Main results with O-crystals at IHEP
  • Length along beam 3-5 mm
  • Extraction efficiency 60-70%
  • Intensity of extracted beam ~1x1012
  • Radiation hardness ~1020
    • Still working with efficiency ~ 40%

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

new approach to use sumbaev elastic quasimosaic effect
New approach – to use Sumbaev (elastic quasimosaic) effect
  • Studied by Sumbaev in 1957
  • Resulted in broadening of gamma-ray diffraction peaks from bent quartz plates
  • Caused by bending of the reflecting atomic planes (initially flat and normal to large faces of plate) due to crystal anisotropy
  • Depends on choice of crystallographic plane and orientation angle of plate cutting relative to a normal to the chosen crystallographic plane

Figure from article: O.I.Sumbaev, Reflection of gamma-rays from bent quartz plates, 1957

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

crystal design
Crystal design

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

elastic quasimosaic in d ependence on cut angle for si 111 plan e
Elastic quasimosaic in dependence on cut angle for Si (111) plane

Plate bending radius R = 1 m

Dq = 2k9 T , where

T – thickness of plate

k9 – deformation coefficient

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

cut 0
Cut  = 0

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

e xperiment with x rays
Experiment with X-rays

Rocking curves for plate with cut angle  = 0 before and after bending.

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

experiment with protons at ihep
Experiment with protons at IHEP

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

some details of experimental setup
Some details of experimental setup

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

first r esult
First result

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

quasimosaic crystals prepared for u 70
Quasimosaic crystals prepared for U-70

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

some preliminaty results with quasimosaic crystals at ihep
Some preliminaty results with quasimosaic crystals at IHEP
  • Length along beam 0.3-10 mm
  • Extraction efficiency 70-80%
  • Intensity of extracted beam 1-4 x 1012

CC-2005, CERN, March 7-8, 2005

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