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Developing a Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). Introduction. Information needed for developing a SWPPP Step-by-step process for ensuring that pollutants are not making their way into the stormwater discharges from your site Stormwater Locator

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Developing a stormwater pollution prevention plan swppp l.jpg

Developing a Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP)

Introduction l.jpg

  • Information needed for developing a SWPPP

  • Step-by-step process for ensuring that pollutants are not making their way into the stormwater discharges from your site

  • Stormwater Locator

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Must We Develop a SWPPP?

  • Clean Water Act requires operators of “discharges associated with industrial activity” obtain a NPDES

  • Most industrial stormwater discharges are covered under general permits. In order to submit a SWPPP, the following must occur in this order…

    • Read general permit and determine eligibility for permit coverage

    • Develop a SWPPP

    • Submit Notice of Intent (NOI)

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What is Stormwater?

  • Water from rain or snowmelt

    • Does not immediately infiltrate into the ground

    • Flows over or through natural or man-made storage or conveyance systems

  • Results in increased surface runoff

  • Picks up industrial pollutants

  • Discharges into nearby waterbodies or stormwater sewer systems

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Major Sources for Pollutants in Stormwater

  • Loading and Unloading Operations

  • Exposed Storage (outdoors or open to runoff)

  • Exposed Process Activities

  • Dust or Particulate Generating Processes

  • Illicit Connections and Non-Stormwater Discharges

  • Waste Management

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Elements of a SWPPP (SWPPP)

  • A typical SWPPP includes the following elements:

    • Stormwater Pollution Prevention Team

    • Site Assessment and Planning

    • Selecting Control Measures

    • Procedures for Inspections and Monitoring

    • Completing your SWPPP

    • Keeping Records of Your Implementation Activities

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Element 1 (SWPPP)Your Stormwater Pollution Prevention (P2)Team

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Your team should… (SWPPP)

  • Include those people most familiar with the facility and its operations

  • Define goals for the facility’s stormwater management program

  • Be responsible for implementing general permit requirements and P2 requirements

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Pollution (SWPPP)Prevention Team

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Element 2 (SWPPP)The Site Assessment and Planning

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Purpose (SWPPP)

  • The purpose of the site assessment is to look at your facility and determine what materials and activities are a source of contamination to the stormwater running off the site

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The Site Assessment (SWPPP)

  • Conduct an assessment of activities:

    • Detailed walk through to create a site map

    • Identify locations where industrial materials or material handling activities take place

    • Inventory of materials and pollutants

    • Locate areas with spill or leak potential

    • Identify non-stormwater discharges

    • Evaluation of the sampling data for the site

    • Site evaluation summary

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The Site Description - Maps (SWPPP)

  • Include a general location map and also a site map that indicates the following:

  • Flow directions of runoff

  • Storm drains / inlets and outfalls (i.e., locations where stormwater exits the property, including pipes, ditches, swales and other conveyance structures)

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Site Map - Locations of Other Features (SWPPP)

  • Footprint of significant structures and impervious surfaces

  • Nearby receiving waters (indicate their impairment status)

  • Stormwater conveyances, BMPs & monitoring points

  • Exposed materials, significant spills & other potential pollutant sources

  • Industrial activities (fueling stations, loading and unloading areas, vehicle maintenance areas, waste handling areas, processing & storage areas)

  • Sources of run-on from adjacent properties containing significant quantities of pollutants

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Pre-BMP (SWPPP)Site Map

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Site Assessment – Material Inventory (SWPPP)

  • Identify and inventory industrial materials and activities exposed to stormwater, and their associated potential pollutants:

    • raw materials

    • intermediate products, by‑products, final products & waste products

    • material handling equipment or activities

    • industrial machinery

    • industrial production and processes

    • pollutants such as crankcase oil, cleaning solvents, etc.

  • Provide description of materials management practices:

    • treatment practices and structural / nonstructural control

    • measures

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Material Inventory (SWPPP)(cont’d)

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The Site Assessment – Spills and Leaks (SWPPP)

  • Document where potential spills and leaks could occur and the corresponding outfalls

  • Document all leaks/ spills containing a hazardous substance or oil in a reportable quantity for the past 3 years

  • An Reportable Quantity (RQ) for oil is the amount of oil that violates applicable water quality standards or causes a film / sheen / discoloration of the water surface or shoreline, or causes a sludge / emulsion beneath the water surface or on adjoining shorelines

  • For other substances RQ levels are expressed as pounds released over any 24 hour period and are listed at 40 CFR 117.3 and 40 CFR 302.4

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The Site Assessment (SWPPP)Non-Stormwater Discharges

  • Identify all potential sources of non-stormwater discharges

  • Examples of allowable non-stormwater discharges:

    • Discharges from fire-fighting activities

    • Potable water, including water line flushings

    • Routine external building washdown that does not use detergents

  • Examples of unauthorized non-stormwater discharges:

    • Surfactant-laden washwater

    • Sewage cross connection

  • Demonstrate & certify unauthorized discharges have been eliminated

    • Describe the evaluation method used and test results

    • Indicate the location of the evaluation

    • Provide the date of the test or evaluation

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Site Assessment - Evaluate Sampling Data (SWPPP)

  • Evaluate any stormwater data sampling available from the past 5 years

    • Identify or pinpoint any pollutants of concern, hotspots, or control measures that are not functioning correctly.

    • Useful for selecting BMPs

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The Site Assessment - Site Evaluation Summary (SWPPP)

  • Becomes the foundation for the SWPPP.

  • Identify & locate on-site industrial materials and activities.

  • Determine whether the materials and activities may contaminate stormwater discharges.

  • Use the information to develop a plan to reduce or eliminate discharge impacts to protect receiving water quality.

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Element 3 (SWPPP)Selecting Control Measures aka Best Management Practices (BMPs)

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BMP Selection & Plan Design (SWPPP)

Provide a narrative description of the BMPs that you have selected for the site

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BMP Selection & Plan Design (SWPPP)

  • Minimize Exposure

  • Good Housekeeping

  • Maintenance

  • Spill Prevention and Response Procedures

  • Erosion and Sediment Controls

  • Management of Runoff

  • Salt Storage Piles or Piles Containing Salt

  • Sector-Specific Requirements

  • Employee Training

  • Non-Stormwater Discharges

  • Waste, Garbage, and Floatable Debris

  • Dust Generation and Vehicle Tracking of Industrial Materials

  • Numeric Effluent Limitations Based on Effluent Limit Guidelines

  • Additional Controls to Address Impaired Waters

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BMP #1 – Minimize Exposure (SWPPP)

  • Minimize exposure of manufacturing, processing, material storage areas, unloading areas, dumpsters and other disposal areas.

  • Move industrial materials and activities inside or protect them with storm resistant coverings.

  • Try to minimize the creation of new impervious surfaces

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BMP #2 - Good Housekeeping (SWPPP)

  • Involves maintaining a clean and orderly work site so that pollutants don’t have a chance to enter stormwater, such as...

    • Improving operations and maintenance of industrial machinery and processes

    • Implementing careful material storage practices

    • Scheduling routine cleanup operations

    • Maintaining up-to-date inventory control

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BMP #3 - Preventive Maintenance (SWPPP)

  • Develop a program that ensures BMPs and industrial equipment are kept in good condition to prevent /minimize releases of pollutants:

    • Regularly inspect and maintain equipment; include schedules

    • Recommend keeping a maintenance log

    • Make equipment/BMP repairs before next rain event

    • Equipment (tanks, drums, hoses) should be checked for signs of deterioration

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BMP #4 - Spill Prevention & Response Procedures (SWPPP)

  • Minimize the potential for leaks/spills that may be exposed to stormwater

  • Label containers (e.g., “Used Oil”) that could be susceptible to spillage

  • Implement barriers between material storage and traffic areas, secondary containment provisions, and procedures for material storage and handling

  • Have procedures for expeditiously stopping, containing, and cleaning up leaks/spills

  • Train employees

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BMP #5 - Erosion and Sediment Controls (SWPPP)

  • The SWPPP plan should identify activities that present a potential for significant soil erosion

    • Grading

    • Seeding

    • Mulching

    • Sodding

    • Sediment traps

    • Silt fences

    • Sediment ponds

    • Stabilized entrances

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BMP #6 - Management of Runoff (SWPPP)

  • Management of runoff reduces pollutants that are discharged from the site

    • Employ structures, practices intended to divert, infiltrate, reuse, or otherwise reduce stormwater runoff

    • Must be site-specific

      • Vegetative swales

      • Berms

      • Collection and reuse of stormwater

      • Inlet controls

      • Snow management

      • Inflitration devices

      • Wet retention measures

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BMP #7 - Salt Storage Piles or Piles Containing Salt (SWPPP)

  • Cover and isolate to ensure pile does not come into contact with stormwater runoff

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BMP #8 – Sector-Specific Requirements (SWPPP)

  • EPA’s 2008 MSGP regulates discharges from 29 industrial sectors

    • Review your general permit to determine if there are sector specific discharge requirements

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BMP #9 - Employee Training (SWPPP)

  • Training program should include topics such as spill prevention, good housekeeping, recordkeeping, material management practices, etc…

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BMP #10 – Non-Stormwater Discharges (SWPPP)

  • Unauthorized non-stormwater discharges cannot be discharged from your facility

    • Specifically authorized by a separate, individual NPDES permit

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BMP #11 - Waste, Garbage, and Floatable Debris (SWPPP)

Stormwater must not carry waste, garbage and debris to receiving waters.

Identify and implement control measures to keep exposed areas free of such waste.

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BMP #12 - Dust Generation and Vehicle Tracking of Industrial Materials

  • Minimize generation of dust and off-site tracking or raw, final or waste materials

    • Sprinklers/irrigation

    • Vegetative cover

    • Mulch, tillage, stone

    • Wind breaks

    • Spray on chemical soil


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BMP #13 - Numeric Effluent Limitations Based on Effluent Limit Guidelines

  • Federal effluent limits are maximum concentrations of a specific pollutant allowed in a discharge

    • Exceedance is a permit violation

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BMP #13 (cont’d) Limit Guidelines

  • Applies to runoff from:

    • Spray down / intentional wetting of logs at wet deck storage areas

    • Phosphate fertilizer manufacturing

    • Asphalt emulsion facilities

    • Cement manufacturing facilities

    • Mine dewatering discharges at crushed stone, construction sand and gravel, or industrial sand mining facilities

    • Hazardous waste and non-hazardous waste landfills

    • Coal storage piles at steam electric generating facilities to runoff from phosphate fertilizer, asphalt emulsion, material storage piles, mine dewatering discharges, waste landfills, and coal storage piles

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Element 4 Limit GuidelinesProcedures for Inspections and Monitoring

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Visual Inspections Limit Guidelines

  • Regular visual inspections are a means to ensure that all elements of the plan are in place and working properly

    • Designate qualified, trained plant personnel to perform inspections

    • Track results, make changes and maintain records of results

    • Records must reflect when, who and what was found

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Visual Inspections (cont’d) Limit Guidelines

  • Perform visual inspections (observation and recording of results) quarterly

  • Must have an inspection schedule in SWPPP

  • Annually, must perform visual inspection when a stormwater discharge is occurring

  • Must make necessary changes to facility control measures as a result of inspection

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Visual Inspections (cont’d) Limit Guidelines

  • Inspection date/time

  • Names and signatures of facility personnel performing inspection

  • Weather conditions

  • Any previously unidentified discharges

  • Any control measures needing maintenance or replacement

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Visual Inspections (cont’d) Limit Guidelines

  • Any incidence of non-compliance observed

  • Any additional control measures needed to comply with permit

  • 1st 30 minutes of a storm event that involves a discharge (or as soon as practicable) visually inspect stormwater sample in clear container at each discharge point and look for:

    • color, odor, clarity, floating solids, settled solids, suspended solids, foam, oil sheen, other obvious pollution

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Monitoring Data Limit Guidelines

  • Controlled Samples sent to a certified laboratory

    • Monthly

    • Quarterly

    • Annually

  • Submit reporting data to EPA within 30 days of laboratory results

  • Annual report to EPA Reporting

  • Additional reporting to EPA includes:

    • spills, leaks,

    • releases of hazardous substances/oil

      • oral report within 24 hours of noncompliance that endangers health/environment

      • 5 day follow-up report to the 24 hour oral report

    • any planned changes to your facility

    • anticipated non-compliance

  • Transfer of ownership

  • The need to correct information on the Notice of Intent

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Required Monitoring Limit Guidelines

  • Quarterly benchmark – parameters depends on SIC code

  • Annual effluent limitations – parameters depends on regulated activity

  • State or Tribal requirements – depends on facility location

  • Annual impaired waterbody – depends on impairment (s)

  • Additional monitoring required by EPA – if notified by EPA

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Reporting Limit Guidelines

  • All monitoring date must be submitted to EPA within 30 days of lab results

  • Additional reporting includes:

    • Spills, leaks, releases of hazardous substances

      • Oral report of non-compliance within 24-hours

      • 5-day follow-up written report

      • Annual report on SW must be submitted (standard form may be used)

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Element 5 Limit GuidelinesCompleting your SWPPP

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Completing your SWPPP Limit Guidelines

  • Implement the selected BMPs

  • Train all employees to carry out the goals of the plan

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Plan Evaluation Limit Guidelines

  • Annual site compliance evaluation must include the following:

    • Inspect stormwater drainage areas

    • Evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs

    • Ensure proper operation of structural measures (traps, ponds, etc.)

    • Revise the plan, if needed, within 2 weeks

    • Prepare a report summarizing inspection results

    • Sign the report and keep it with the plan

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Plan Evaluation (cont’d) Limit Guidelines

  • Recordkeeping and internal reporting

    • Must maintain records of spills, leaks, inspections and maintenance activities

  • Plan revisions

    • Major changes in a facility’s design and/or operation will necessitate changes in SWPP plan

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Endangered Species/Historic Places Limit Guidelines

  • You must include documentation that supports endangered species and historic place requirements as identified in the MSGP

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Certification and Submission of SWPPP Limit Guidelines

  • Date and sign SWPPP

  • Include a copy of the Multi Sector General Permit (MSGP) attached to your SWPPP

    • The confirmation letter you receive from the Notice of Intent (NOI) processing center is not sufficient

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Modification of SWPPP Limit Guidelines

  • Modify SWPPP whenever necessary to address any changing or additional conditions

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SWPPP on the Internet Limit Guidelines

  • For first time MSGP applications (i.e., new dischargers, new sources, other eligible dischargers), you must post your SWPPP on the internet

  • By posting on internet the discharge authorization date granted from EPA could be 30 days instead of 60 days

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Element 6 Limit GuidelinesKeeping Records of Your Implementation Activities

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Keeping Records Limit Guidelines

  • Document compliance

    • Within requirements of your permit

  • Conduct inspections

    • Keep records of activities

    • Keep records of corrective actions

  • Ensure reliable reports kept on-site with your SWPPP

    • Accessible, complete, up-to-date

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Additional Documentation Limit Guidelines

  • Permit records

  • Spill records

  • Employee training records

  • Maintenance records

  • Inspection records

  • Monitoring records

  • Corrective action records

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Questions? Limit Guidelines