IDN Server Proxy Architecture for Internationalized Domain Name Resolution and Experiences with Prov...
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IDN Server Proxy Architecture for Internationalized Domain Name Resolution and Experiences with Providing Web Services. By:- Jeng-Wei Lin Jan-Ming Ho

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By

IDN Server Proxy Architecture for Internationalized Domain Name Resolution and Experiences with Providing Web Services

By:-

Jeng-Wei Lin

Jan-Ming Ho

Li-Ming Tseng

Feipei Lai

Presenter:- Arpit Mishra


Introduction

Introduction…

  • A large number of people want to access the internet using their native language.

  • They are not able to do so because traditional domain names are restricted to LDH characters (ASCII letters, digits and hyphens).

  • In the article the authors have considered the problems of a service provider in delivering services to users who are not familiar with English.


What did the authors do

What Did the authors do...?

  • They present an IDN proxy architecture which stores ACE IDNs in domain name servers.

  • Traditional DNSs can be used without any modifications.

  • Octopus- An IDN proxy server, is employed.

  • Based on design and implementation of Octopus, they deployed a CDN (Chinese domain name) trial in July 2002.


What does octopus do

What does Octopus do…?

  • Octopus converts a non ACE IDN string into ACE upon receiving an IDN lookup request from remote users or autonomous systems.

  • The ACE string is then forwarded to backend domain name servers for further processing.

  • This allows internet users to access IDNs without having to upgrade their software.


Designing an idn server proxy

Designing an IDN Server Proxy…

Currently, an IDN in a DNS query packet will be encoded in it’s local encoding,UTF8,ACE, or other less commonly used encodings.

Under some circumstances, an IDN might be falsely interpreted, and the domain name server will receive a vitiated representation of the IDN.

To overcome this, name holders must upgrade their domain name servers to support multiple encodings.


Issues in designing

Issues in Designing…

  • Detection of Encoding

  • Transcoding Non-ACE and ACE Domain names.

  • Routing of a Non-ACE IDN Lookup.

  • Inference of Domain Name Caching.

  • Availability And Scalability.


Octopus idn system

Octopus IDN System…

  • It is a realization of IDN server proxy architecture…

  • It consists of an Octopus Mapper and Generic Domain Name Servers,DNS1 to DNSn.

  • All non-ACE IDN lookups are routed to the Octopus Mapper.


Octopus mapper

Octopus Mapper…

When the Octopus Mapper receives a DNS Query Packet, it

  • Detects the encoding of the non-ACE IDN in the QNAME field.

  • Forwards transcodes the IDN into ACE.

  • Passes ACE DNS lookups to DNS1, DNS2, to DNSn.

  • Backward transcodes relevant IDNs.

  • Returns authoritative answers to the remote user.


Resolving the design issues

Resolving the Design Issues…

  • Detection of Encoding

  • Transcoding Non-ACE and ACE Domain names.

  • Routing of a Non-ACE IDN Lookup.

  • Inference of Domain Name Caching.

  • Availability And Scalability.


Experiences of the authors

Experiences of the Authors…

  • They entered a total of 10,782 Chinese domains currently registered in the ”tw“ domain.

  • Then they used ping on various platforms to evaluate the functionality of octopus name resolution.

  • Results showed that Octopus is effective in providing UTF8 and BIG5 IDN resolution.

  • By conducting a number of experiments the authors were able to conclude that their architecture works well with application clients like “telnet” & “ftp”.


Result table

Result Table…


Errors

Errors…

  • Browser Errors.

  • Virtual Host Server Errors.

  • Application Server Errors.


Conclusion

CONCLUSION

  • Experiment results show that if Web Server Administrators and Web Page authors are more careful in regard to IDNs, many problems that occur can be avoided.

  • Future research that is possible in this regard includes IDNs in email, character variant problems etc.

  • However there is an issue of scalability when the number of equivalent IDNs is too large.

  • Internationalized domain names should be furthur localized to reflect the language issues of individual cultures.


References

References…

  •    Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and Frystyk, H. 1996. Hypertext Transfer Protocol---HTTP/1.0. RFC 1945.

  •    Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and Masinter, L. 1998. Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax.

    RFC 2396.

  •    Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., and McCahill, M. 1994. Uniform Resource Locators (URL). RFC 1738.

  •    Chung, E. and Leung, D. 2002. Internationalized Domain Name Transition (IDNX). Internet Draft.

  •    Costello, A. M. 2003. Punycode: A Bootstring encoding of Unicode for IDNA. RFC 3492.

  •    Faltstrom, P., Hoffman, P., and Costello, A. M. 2003. Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications

    (IDNA). RFC 3490.

  •    Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H., and Berners-Lee, T. 1997. Hypertext Transfer Protocol---

    HTTP/1.1. RFC 2068.

  •    Hoffman, P. 2003. A Method for Registering Internationalized Domain Names. Internet Draft.

  •    Hoffman, P. and Blanchet, M. 2002. Preparation of Internationalized Strings (stringprep). RFC 3454.

  •    Hoffman, P. and Blanchet, M. 2003. Nameprep: A Stringprep Profile for Internationalized Domain Names.

    RFC 3491.

  •    InterNIC. InterNIC Name Delegation Policy. www.internic.net.

  •    ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000(E). International Standard---Information Technology. Universal Multiple-Octet

    Coded Character Set

  • (UCS).

  •    Jpnic. Internationalized/Multilingual Domain Name Tool Kit (idnkit/mDNkit).

    http://www.nic.ad.jp/en/idn/index.html.

  •    Konishi, K., Huang, K., Qian, H., and KO, Y. 2004. Joint Engineering Team (JET) Guidelines for

    Internationalized Domain

  • Names (IDN) Registration and Administration for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. RFC 3743.

  •    Mockapetris, P. 1987. Domain Names---Concepts and Facilities (RFC 1034) and Domain Names-

    Implementation and Specification (RFC 1035). STD 13.

  •    The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard. http://www.unicode.org/.


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