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Direct Quotes and Paraphrasing. MLA Format. What are Direct Quotes?. Direct Quotes = use of the author’s exact words, phrases or sentences These must be enclosed in double quotation marks.

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What are direct quotes
What are Direct Quotes?

  • Direct Quotes = use of the author’s exact words, phrases or sentences

  • These must be enclosed in double quotation marks.

  • The author’s last name (if not already mentioned) and page number (if available) should appear in parentheses directly after the quote but before the period.

  • What if there is no author? Cite the source title.


Example
Example

  • Original text: (James D. Lester 46-47)

    Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Probably only 10% of your final paper should appear as directly quoted material.

  • Direct Quote: When writing a research paper “only 10% of [the] final paper should appear as directly quoted material” (Lester 46-47).


What is paraphrasing
What is Paraphrasing?

  • A paraphrase is a restatement of someone else’s ideas, evidence or opinions using your own words.

  • A paraphrase is typically similar or longer in length than the original passage.

  • You must still cite a paraphrase.

    • Why? Credit must be given for intellectual property. If you didn’t think of it in these terms and someone else did, credit the source.

    • Exceptions: Widely available facts, like birth and death dates, etc., need not be cited.


6 steps to effective paraphrasing
6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing

  • Read and reread for understanding

  • Put source away

  • Write key points that you remember without looking at the source. You do not want to use the same sentence format.

  • Compare to the original to make sure you did not miss any key information OR unintentionally plagiarize.

  • Quote any exact borrowings.

  • Record the source.


Plagiarism or acceptable paraphrase
Plagiarism or Acceptable Paraphrase?

Original from Lester’s book on pages 46-47:

Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes.

Paraphrase, or Plagiarism?

Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% ofthe final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.


Acceptable paraphrase
Acceptable Paraphrase

  • When writing research papers, students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).


In text citations the basics
In-Text Citations: The Basics

Parenthetical citations depend on the source’s

entry on the Works Cited page

  • The citation in the parentheses or asignal word in the text must be the first element in the corresponding entry on the Works Cited page


Signal words
Signal Words

In-text Example:

Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).

Wordsworthstated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).

Wordsworthextensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).

Corresponding Works Cited Entry:

Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford

U.P., 1967. Print.


Signal words1
Signal Words

In-text Example:

Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).

Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" (3).

Corresponding Works Cited Entry:

Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays

on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkeley: U of

California P, 1966. Print.


Signal words with unknown author
Signal Words with Unknown Author

In-text Example:

We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has “more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change . . .” (“Impact”).

Corresponding Works Cited Entry:

“Impact of Global Warming in North America.”

GLOBAL WARMING: Early Signs. 2009. Web. 23 Mar.

2012.


Other in text citations 1
Other In-Text Citations 1

Authors with Same Last Names

In-text Example:

Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).


Multiple authors in text citations
Multiple AuthorsIn-Text Citations

In-text Examples:

Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76).

The authors state "Tighter gun control in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights" (Smith, Yang, and Moore 76).

Corresponding Works Cited Entry:

Smith, Ken, Jim Yang, and Micah Moore. Cold, Dead Fingers. New York: Penguin, 2012. Print.


Multiple works by the same author
Multiple Works by the Same Author

In-text Examples:

Lightenorhas argued that computers are not useful tools for small children ("Too Soon"), though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year ("Hand-Eye Development" 71).

Corresponding Works Cited Entries:

Lightenor, Mel. “Hand-Eye Development Enhancements.”Time 20 Nov. 2011: 70-71. Print.

Lightenor, Mel. “Too Soon to Game.” A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites. A List Apart Mag., 16 Aug. 2012. Web. 4 Sept. 2012.


Citing the bible
Citing the Bible

The Bible

Give the name of the specific edition you are using, any editor(s) associated with it, followed by the publication information. Remember that your in-text (parenthetical citation) should include the name of the specific edition of the Bible, followed by an abbreviation of the book, the chapter and verse(s).

In-text Example:

Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures" (New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. 1.5-10), each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle.

Corresponding Works Cited Entry:

New Jerusalem Bible. Ed. Susan Jones. New York: Doubleday, 2005. Print.


Other in text citations
Other In-Text Citations

Citing Indirect Sources

In-text Example:

Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" (qtd. in Weisman 259).

Same Information from More Than One Source

In-text Example:

. . . as has been discussed elsewhere (Burke 3; Dewey 21).


Other in text citations1
Other In-Text Citations

Sources from the Internet

In-text Example:

One online film critic stated that Fitzcarraldo is "...a beautiful and terrifying critique of obsession and colonialism" (Garcia).

Corresponding Works Cited Entry:

Garcia, Elizabeth. "Herzog: A Life." Online Film Critics

Corner. The Film School of New Hampshire, 2 May

2002. Web. 8 Jan. 2012.


Formatting short quotations
Formatting Short Quotations

The citation goes directly after the quote, even in the middle of a sentence. Punctuate as if the citation is part of the quote (after the closing parenthesis).

In-text Examples:

According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.

According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184).

Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)?


Formatting long quotations quotations of 4 lines
Formatting Long Quotations (Quotations of 4+ Lines)

No quotation marks are used; the entire 4+ section is indented. The citation goes after the closing period (only time this happens).

In-text Example:

Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration:

They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room,

and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping

it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing

his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on

quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was

obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and

inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)

Continue with your own analysis here. Rarely will a paragraph end with a quote, especially a long quote.


Adding or omitting words use brackets or ellipses
Adding or Omitting Words: Use Brackets or Ellipses

In-text example for Adding Words:

Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states: "some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" (78).

In-text example for Omitting Words:

In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale . . . and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78).


Works cited bibliography list of sources
Works Cited = Bibliography/List of Sources

Sample Works Cited page:


Works cited books
Works Cited: Books

Basic Format:

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication:

Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.

Examples:

Andrews, William J. Dickens and New Historicism. New York: St.

Martin's, 1997. Print.

Burns, Robert. "Red, Red Rose." 100 Best-Loved Poems. Ed. Philip Smith. New York: Dover, 1995. 26. Print.

Harris, Muriel. "Talk to Me." Critical Approaches to the Work of Toni Morrison. Ed. Ben Rafoth. Portsmouth: Heinemann, 2000. 24- 34. Print.


Works cited periodicals in print
Works Cited: Periodicals in Print

Article in a Magazine Format:

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical Day Month Year:

pages. Medium of publication.

Example:

Buchman, Dana. "A Special Education." Good Housekeeping

Mar. 2006: 143-8. Print.

Article in Scholarly Journal Format:

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume. Issue (Year):

pages. Medium of publication.

Example:

Duvall, John N. “Marketplace of Images: Television in DeLillo'sWhite Noise." Arizona Quarterly50.3 (2004): 127- 53. Print.


Works cited page web
Works Cited Page: Web

Web Source Format:

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). “Article

Name.” Name of Site. Version number. Name of

institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor

or publisher). Date of last update. Medium of publication.

Date of access.

Examples:

Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory.

Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2010. Web. 10 May 2011.

"How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow.com. eHow,

n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2011.

n.d. = no date listed


Works Cited Page: Other

Film Example:

The Usual Suspects. Dir. Bryan Singer. Perf. Kevin

Spacey, Gabriel Byrne, Chazz Palminteri, Stephen

Baldwin, and Benecio del Toro. Polygram, 1995.

Film.


Purdue owl http owl english purdue edu

Purdue OWL: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/

For More Information


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