The passive voice by c alp zar n http www e grammar org passive voice
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The passive voice by c alp zar n http www e grammar org passive voice

ThePassiveVoice( By C. Alpízar N.)

CharacteristicsItisused in formal (academic, scientific) readings and writings. Itisrarelyused in oral activities. It can beused, butitisnot as common as in readingsor formal writings.

Components1. a transitive verb (allows a direct object)2. a subject3. a direct object (or a “by” agent)4. the preposition “by” (not all the time)5. the verb “be” as an auxiliary6. a past participle

Simple Present ActiveJohnwritesarticlesfor La Nación everyday.John = subjectwrites = transitiveverbarticles = directobject

Simple PresentPassiveArticlesare writtenby John everydayfor La Nación.Articles = newsubjectarewritten = auxiliary “be” in present + pastparticipleby John = “Byagent” (notalwaysnecessary / present in a sentence)

Important note john writes articles singular subject articles are written by john plural subject

Important NoteJohnwrites articles = singular subjectArticlesare written by John = plural subject.

On-line ExercisesSimple Present Passive

Simple Past ActiveMozart composedIdomeneo in 1773.Mozart = subjectcomposed = transitiveverbIdomeneo = directobject

Simple PastPassiveIdomeneowascomposedby Mozart in 1773. Idomeneo = newsubjectwascomposed = auxiliary “be” in past + pastparticipleby Mozart = “Byagent” (notalwaysnecessary / present in a sentence)

Important NoteMozartcomposed many symphonies = singular subjectMany symphonies were composed by Mozart = plural subject

On-line ExercisesSimple Past Passive

PresentContinuous ActiveResearchersare launching (*) a new rockettoday. Researchers= subjectare launching= transitiveverba new rocket= directobject (*) initiate

PresentContinuousPassiveA new rocketisbeinglaunchedbyresearcherstoday. A new rocket= newsubjectisbeinglaunched= auxiliary “be” in present (is) + auxiliary “be” in presentcontinuous (being) + pastparticiplebyresearchers= “Byagent” (notalwaysnecessary / present in a sentence)

Important NoteResearchersare launchinga new rockettoday. = plural subject A new rocketisbeinglaunchedbyresearcherstoday. = singular subject

On-line ExercisesPresent Continuous Passive

PresentPerfect ActiveScientistshaveimprovedtechnologyin thelastcentury. Scientists= subjecthaveimproved= transitiveverbtechnology= directobject

PresentPerfectPassiveTechnologyhas beenimprovedbyScientistsin thelastcentury. Technology= newsubject has beenimproved= auxiliary “has” + pastparticiple of “be” (been) + anotherpastparticiplebyresearchers= “Byagent” (notalwaysnecessary / present in a sentence)

Important NoteScientistshaveimprovedtechnologyin thelastcentury. = plural subjectTechnologyhas beenimprovedbyScientistsin thelastcentury. = singular subject

On-line ExercisesPresent Perfect Passive

Simple Future ActivePeoplewilldrinkCoca Cola in the 21st century. People= subjectwilldrink= transitiveverb Coca Cola = directobject

Simple FuturePassiveCoca Cola willbedrunkbypeoplein the 21st century. Coca Cola = newsubjectwillbedrunk= auxiliary “will” + auxiliary-infinitive “be” + pastparticipletheverbbypeople= “Byagent” (notalwaysnecessary / present in a sentence)

Important NotePeoplewilldrinkCoca Cola in the 21st century. = plural subject Coca Cola willbedrunkbypeoplein the 21st century. = singular subject

Modals and Active Voice1. Astronauts (subject) couldlaunch(modal auxiliary + transitiveverb)spacestations(directobject)2. Humanity (subject) shouldstart(modal auxiliary + transitiveverb)spacecolonies(directobject) 3. Scientists (subject) willperfect(modal auxiliary + transitiveverb)thenecessarytechnology(directobject) soon.

Modals and PassiveVoice1. Spacestations(new subject) couldbelaunched(modal auxiliary + auxiliary “be” + pastparticiple) byAstronauts(“by” agent)2. Spacecolonies(new subject) shouldbestarted(modal auxiliary + auxiliary “be” + pastparticiple) byHumanity(“by” agent) 3. Thenecessarytechnology(new subject) willbeperfected(modal auxiliary + auxiliary “be” + pastparticiple) byScientists(“by” agent)

On-line ExercisesModal Auxiliaries and Passive Voice

On-line ExercisesPassive Voice – Review

On-line ExercisesActive VS Passive Voice