Pictures and spoken descriptions elicit similar eye movements during
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Pictures and spoken descriptions elicit similar eye movements during mental imagery , both in light and in complete darkness. Eye movements as a window to the mind Jörg Brunstein. Roger Johansson, Jana Holsanova, Kenneth Holmqvist Department of Cognitive Science, Lund University, Sweden.

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Roger Johansson, Jana Holsanova, Kenneth Holmqvist

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Roger johansson jana holsanova kenneth holmqvist

Pictures and spoken descriptions elicit similar eye movements during mental imagery, both in light and in complete darkness

Eye movements as a window to the mind

Jörg Brunstein

Roger Johansson, Jana Holsanova, Kenneth Holmqvist

Department of Cognitive Science, Lund University, Sweden


Theoretical background

Theoretical background

  • Mental images:

    Do they exist?

    And if yes, how do they work?

  • Relevance: Where do people look when reflecting, remembering the last display etc.?


Hypotheses

Hypotheses

  • Similar EM when

    seeing pictures,

    remembering pictures,

    and retelling verbal descriptions.

  • EM indicate locations of objects

  • Equally strong for retelling and remembering

  • In light and in complete darkness


Experiments

Experiments

  • Listen and retell in light

  • Look and retell in light

  • Listen and retell in complete darkness

  • Look (in light) and retell in complete darkness

  • Data: EM during encoding (see/listen) and retrieval (describe/retell)


Methods

Methods

  • 12 + 12 + 28 + 28 participants (50% (fe)male)

  • SMI iView X at 50 Hz (bicycle helmet)

    • Glasses and lenses no problem, but mascara

  • White board 657 x 960 mm (about 36 x 38 inches) in 150 cm distance (about 59 inches)


Welcome to our lab

Welcome to our lab!


Calibration

Calibration


Phase 2

Phase 2

  • Look: “You will soon see a picture. We want you to study the picture as thoroughly as possible. While you study the picture we will measure you pupil size.” (30 sec.)

  • Listen: “Imagine a two-dimensional picture. There is…” (2 min. 6 sec.)


Roger johansson jana holsanova kenneth holmqvist

Look!


Retell

Retell!


Interview

Interview

  • What do you think the objective of this study was?

  • Rate the vividness of your visualization during the description phase on a scale ranging from 1(not very vivid) to 5 (extremely vivid).

  • Access whether you usually think in pictures or words.


Roger johansson jana holsanova kenneth holmqvist

Data


Experiments 1 4

Experiments 1 - 4

  • Experiment 1: Listen and retell in light (2 min + 1-2 min)

  • Experiment 2: Look and describe in light (30 sec + 1-2 min)

  • Experiment 3: Listen and retell in complete darkness (2 min + 1-2 min)

  • Experiment 4: Look (in light) and describe (in complete darkness) (30 sec + 1-2 min)


Data analysis

Data analysis

  • Temporal reference:

  • Holsanova (2001): eye-voice latencies typically between 2 and 4 sec.

    • listening: looking after hearing (2.1 sec)

    • retelling: looking before or after telling (0.29 sec.)

    • 5 sec. before and after onset


Data analysis1

Data analysis

  • Spatial reference:

  • Global correspondence: looking to correct position relative to complete scene (direction + distance) (up, down, left, right; full/half distance; stand still)

  • Local correspondence: looking into correct direction

  • No correspondence: neither location nor direction within time window


Results

Results


Discussion content

Discussion: Content

  • Eye movements reflect positions of objects

  • Retelling = describing from memory

  • Functional role of eye movements for mental images as spatial indexes (working memory, simulated vision, utterance planning)


Discussion methods

Discussion: Methods

  • Complex pictures and images

  • Spatial arrangements instead directions only

  • Relative ROIs instead of absolute ones for scaling effects

  • Mental images instead of visual percepts

  • Tracking in light and in complete darkness

  • Minor: don’t say that they track directions but calibrate participants


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