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Roger Johansson, Jana Holsanova, Kenneth Holmqvist

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Pictures and spoken descriptions elicit similar eye movements during mental imagery , both in light and in complete darkness. Eye movements as a window to the mind Jörg Brunstein. Roger Johansson, Jana Holsanova, Kenneth Holmqvist Department of Cognitive Science, Lund University, Sweden.

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Presentation Transcript
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Pictures and spoken descriptions elicit similar eye movements during mental imagery, both in light and in complete darkness

Eye movements as a window to the mind

Jörg Brunstein

Roger Johansson, Jana Holsanova, Kenneth Holmqvist

Department of Cognitive Science, Lund University, Sweden

theoretical background
Theoretical background
  • Mental images:

Do they exist?

And if yes, how do they work?

  • Relevance: Where do people look when reflecting, remembering the last display etc.?
hypotheses
Hypotheses
  • Similar EM when

seeing pictures,

remembering pictures,

and retelling verbal descriptions.

  • EM indicate locations of objects
  • Equally strong for retelling and remembering
  • In light and in complete darkness
experiments
Experiments
  • Listen and retell in light
  • Look and retell in light
  • Listen and retell in complete darkness
  • Look (in light) and retell in complete darkness
  • Data: EM during encoding (see/listen) and retrieval (describe/retell)
methods
Methods
  • 12 + 12 + 28 + 28 participants (50% (fe)male)
  • SMI iView X at 50 Hz (bicycle helmet)
    • Glasses and lenses no problem, but mascara
  • White board 657 x 960 mm (about 36 x 38 inches) in 150 cm distance (about 59 inches)
phase 2
Phase 2
  • Look: “You will soon see a picture. We want you to study the picture as thoroughly as possible. While you study the picture we will measure you pupil size.” (30 sec.)
  • Listen: “Imagine a two-dimensional picture. There is…” (2 min. 6 sec.)
interview
Interview
  • What do you think the objective of this study was?
  • Rate the vividness of your visualization during the description phase on a scale ranging from 1(not very vivid) to 5 (extremely vivid).
  • Access whether you usually think in pictures or words.
experiments 1 4
Experiments 1 - 4
  • Experiment 1: Listen and retell in light (2 min + 1-2 min)
  • Experiment 2: Look and describe in light (30 sec + 1-2 min)
  • Experiment 3: Listen and retell in complete darkness (2 min + 1-2 min)
  • Experiment 4: Look (in light) and describe (in complete darkness) (30 sec + 1-2 min)
data analysis
Data analysis
  • Temporal reference:
  • Holsanova (2001): eye-voice latencies typically between 2 and 4 sec.
    • listening: looking after hearing (2.1 sec)
    • retelling: looking before or after telling (0.29 sec.)
    • 5 sec. before and after onset
data analysis1
Data analysis
  • Spatial reference:
  • Global correspondence: looking to correct position relative to complete scene (direction + distance) (up, down, left, right; full/half distance; stand still)
  • Local correspondence: looking into correct direction
  • No correspondence: neither location nor direction within time window
discussion content
Discussion: Content
  • Eye movements reflect positions of objects
  • Retelling = describing from memory
  • Functional role of eye movements for mental images as spatial indexes (working memory, simulated vision, utterance planning)
discussion methods
Discussion: Methods
  • Complex pictures and images
  • Spatial arrangements instead directions only
  • Relative ROIs instead of absolute ones for scaling effects
  • Mental images instead of visual percepts
  • Tracking in light and in complete darkness
  • Minor: don’t say that they track directions but calibrate participants
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