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CHAPTER. 4. Police Organization and Management. American Policing. The purposes of policing in democratic societies: preventing and investigating crimes apprehending offenders protecting and aiding the public ensuring domestic peace and tranquility enforcing and supporting the laws.

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  • Police Organization and Management

American Policing

  • The purposes of policing in democratic societies:

  • preventing and investigating crimes

  • apprehending offenders

  • protecting and aiding the public

  • ensuring domestic peace and tranquility

  • enforcing and supporting the laws

American Policing

  • Three Levels (jurisdictions)

    • federal

    • state

    • local

Federal Law


Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  • Department of the Treasury

    • Internal Revenue Service – Criminal Investigation Division

    • Treasury Inspector General for Tax Enforcement

Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  • Department of Justice

    • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives

    • Bureau of Prisons (BOP)

    • Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)

    • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

    • U.S. Marshals Service

Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  • Department of Interior

    • Fish and Wildlife Service

    • National Park Service

    • U.S. Park Police

    • Bureau of Indian Affairs

    • Bureau of Land Management

Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  • Department of Defense

    • Air Force Office of Special Investigations

    • Army Criminal Investigation Division

    • Defense Criminal Investigative Service

    • Naval Investigative Service

Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  • Department of Homeland Security

    • Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement

    • Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC)

    • Federal Protective Service

    • Transportation Security Administration (TSA)

    • U.S. Secret Service

    • U.S. Coast Guard

Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  • U.S. Postal Service

  • Postal Inspections Service

  • Washington D.C.

  • Metropolitan Police Department

Federal Bureau of Investigation

  • 1924 – J. Edgar Hoover is appointed Director

  • 1924 – Identification Division is created to collect fingerprint files

  • 1930 – F.B.I. begins collecting crime data for Uniform Crime Report publication

  • 1932 – Crime Laboratory is established.

FBI Priorities - 2003

1.Protecting the United States from terrorist attack

2. Protecting the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage

3. Protecting the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes

4. Combating public corruption at all levels

5. Protecting civil rights

FBI Priorities - 2003

6. Combating transnational and national criminal organizations and enterprises

7. Combating major white-collar crime

8. Combating violent crimes that have wide impact

9. Supporting federal, state, local, and international partners

10. Upgrading technology to perform the FBI’s mission successfully

State and

Local Law


Believed to be the first state police force

Border patrol responsibilities

Apprehended Mexican cattle rustlers

State Law Enforcement

1835 Texas Rangers

Centralized Model

Decentralized Model

State Law Enforcement

Two Models

State Law Enforcement

  • 49 state police departments

  • approx. 52,000 full-time state police officers

  • approx. 26,000 civilian employees

  • major role – control traffic on highway system

Local Agencies - Municipal

  • approx. 13,580 different departments

  • approx. 420,000 sworn police officers

  • approx. 100,000 civilian employees

  • largest – New York – approx. 37,000 police officers

  • smallest – 3,409 departments with 1 sworn police officer or only part-time officers

Local Agencies - County

  • approx. 3,100 sheriff departments

  • approx. 155,000 full-time officers

  • approx. 89,000 civilian employees

  • largest – Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department



Police Management:

… the administrative activities of controlling, directing, and coordinating police personnel, resources, and activities.

Styles of Policing

  • watchman style

  • legalistic style

  • service style

order maintenance

controlling illegal and disruptive behavior

considerable use of discretion

Styles of Policing

Watchman Style:

committed to enforcing the letter of the law

“laissez faire” policing

Styles of Policing

Legalistic Style:

Reflects the needs of the community

Work with social services and assist communities in solving problems

Styles of Policing

Service Style:

1960s– A new style of service oriented policing emerged.

Public-relations officers are appointed to “Neighborhood Watch” programs, drug-awareness workshops, etc.

Police – Community Relations

strategic policing

problem-solving policing

community-oriented policing

Police – Community Relations

The police derive their legitimacy from the community they serve.

Community Policing

A collaborative effort between the police and the community that identifies problems of crime and disorder and involves all elements of the community in the search for solutions to these problems.

Community Policing

Community policing is a two-way street.

It not only requires the police to be aware of community needs, it also mandates both involvement and crime-fighting action on the part of citizens themselves.

Community Policing

Police Learning Organizations:

… agencies that are skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge and at modifying their behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights.

Employ knowledge-policing

Police Learning Organizations

1967- LEAA was formed to assist police departments in acquiring the latest in technology and adopting new enforcement methods.

American Policing

LEAA - funded many police research projects

Gave rise to Scientific Police Management

American Policing

Scientific Police Management:

… the application of social science techniques to the study of police administration for the purpose of increasing effectiveness, reducing the frequency of citizen complaints, and enhancing the efficient use of available resources.

Questioned worth of traditional patrol strategies.

Questioned response time importance.

Styles of Policing

Kansas City Experiments:

Police Discretion:


Police Discretion:

Determined by:

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