CHAPTER. 4. Police Organization and Management. American Policing. The purposes of policing in democratic societies: preventing and investigating crimes apprehending offenders protecting and aiding the public ensuring domestic peace and tranquility enforcing and supporting the laws.
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1.Protecting the United States from terrorist attack
2. Protecting the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage
3. Protecting the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes
4. Combating public corruption at all levels
5. Protecting civil rights
6. Combating transnational and national criminal organizations and enterprises
7. Combating major white-collar crime
8. Combating violent crimes that have wide impact
9. Supporting federal, state, local, and international partners
10. Upgrading technology to perform the FBI’s mission successfully
Believed to be the first state police force
Border patrol responsibilities
Apprehended Mexican cattle rustlers
1835 Texas Rangers
… the administrative activities of controlling, directing, and coordinating police personnel, resources, and activities.
controlling illegal and disruptive behavior
considerable use of discretion
committed to enforcing the letter of the law
“laissez faire” policing
Reflects the needs of the community
Work with social services and assist communities in solving problems
1960s– A new style of service oriented policing emerged.
Public-relations officers are appointed to “Neighborhood Watch” programs, drug-awareness workshops, etc.
The police derive their legitimacy from the community they serve.
A collaborative effort between the police and the community that identifies problems of crime and disorder and involves all elements of the community in the search for solutions to these problems.
Community policing is a two-way street.
It not only requires the police to be aware of community needs, it also mandates both involvement and crime-fighting action on the part of citizens themselves.
… agencies that are skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge and at modifying their behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights.
1967- LEAA was formed to assist police departments in acquiring the latest in technology and adopting new enforcement methods.
LEAA - funded many police research projects
Gave rise to Scientific Police Management
… the application of social science techniques to the study of police administration for the purpose of increasing effectiveness, reducing the frequency of citizen complaints, and enhancing the efficient use of available resources.
Questioned worth of traditional patrol strategies.
Questioned response time importance.
Kansas City Experiments:
… DISCRETION = CHOICE