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Istanbul, June 12, 2006. New Workplace New Education. Kai-ming Cheng University of Hong Kong Forum on Job Creation in Eastern Europe & Central Asia World Bank/Government of Turkey June 12-13, 2006 Istanbul. Education: What’s New?. The Contexts Society: new workplace

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New workplace new education

New WorkplaceNew Education

Kai-ming Cheng

University of Hong Kong

Forum on Job Creation in Eastern Europe & Central Asia

World Bank/Government of Turkey

June 12-13, 2006 Istanbul


Education what s new
Education: What’s New?

The Contexts

  • Society: new workplace

  • Education: new developments

  • Learning: new understanding



  • Then,

    Industrial society ….



Assumptions
Assumptions

  • Large organizations

  • Parallel departments

  • Layers and ranks

  • Detailed division of labour

  • Tight structures

  • Rules and regulations

  • Credential-based recruitment

    i.e. bureaucracies


People s assumptions
People’s assumptions …

  • Lifelong career

  • Long-term employment

  • Presumed loyalty

  • Upward mobility

  • Escalating incomes

  • Foreseeable future

  • Predictable retirement

  • ……..


People in workplace industrial
People in Workplace: Industrial

  • Work in specific jobs

  • Engage in relatively isolated tasks

  • Are specialized

  • Are ranked

  • Implement pre-set designs

  • Follow prescribed procedures

  • Abide by rules and regulations

  • Recruited by qualifications

  • ……


Assumption people are specialized classified ranked
Assumption:People are Specialized, Classified & Ranked


Industrial society education
Industrial society: Education

Preparing people

  • For specific occupations at specific ranks

  • Providing them with credentials

  • Based on the knowledge and skills


Industrial society secondary education
Industrial society: Secondary Education

Therefore,

  • Prepare young people for higher level education

  • Providing them with credentials

  • Based on the knowledge and skills

  • Or employment, if they fail


Industrial society secondary education1
Industrial society: Secondary Education

  • Teaching through subjects

  • Helping students through examinations

  • Providing them with credentials

  • Based on the knowledge and skills



Knowledge & Skills

Preschool

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

“End” of education:

Next stage of education



  • Mobile phones

    CEO of Samsung:

    “We are not producing telephones.

    We are producing fashion!”


  • G2000

    Michael Tien:

    “When it works, It’s obsolete!”

    “Customers don’t know what they want!”


Restaurants: Maxim’s

Cantonese Cuisine (9)

Chaozhou Cuisine (3)

Peking Cuisine (5)

Other Chinese Cuisines (5)

Miso, Kiko

m.a.x. concepts: mezz, EXP, café Landmark, thai basil, can.teen, little basil, the basil,

fresh basil, rice paper,

Café Express, Deli and Wine, Curtain Up,

Concerto Bar & Cafe

Starbucks Coffee

Over 320 shops


Manufacturing
Manufacturing

Then

Design

Production

Now








Outsourcing
Outsourcing

Core Functions



Just in time publishing
Just-in-time publishing

Printing

Inventory

Shipping

Inventory

Sales

Sales

Printing



Task forces
Task Forces

Client

TASK FORCE


Post-industrial: Large Organisations

Project Groups

Task Forces

Production Teams

Client Groups

“Accounts”

Deal Team




  • Now,

    Post-industrial society …




Hong Kong (around 291,000 registered companies)

  • 99% under 100 (SME)

    • 69% of employees

  • 94% under 20

    • 40% of employees

  • 86% under 10

    • 33% of employees

      (June 2005)


  • Hong Kong …

    • Free-lancers 220,000 estimated

      vis-à-vis 2,200,000 in registered companies


    The United States

    Business Enterprises

    • 98% under 100

    • 86% under 20

      National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002


    Post-industrial: Workplace

    Project Groups/Task Forces

    Small Enterprises

    Free-lancers

    The Civil Service (Traditional)



    Post-industrial: Large Organisations

    Project Groups

    Task Forces

    Production Teams

    Client Groups

    “Accounts”

    Deal Team




    Post-industrial: Workplace

    Project Groups/Task Forces

    Small Enterprises

    Free-lancers

    The Civil Service


    Post-industrial: Workplace

    • Organization:

      • small,

      • flat

      • loose

    • Mode of work:

      • Teamwork

      • Collaborative design

      • Ill-defined labour division

      • Blurred specialization

      • Integration of expertise


    Post-industrial: Individuals

    • Many free-lancers

    • Many unemployed

    • Frequent change of jobs

    • Frequent change of careers

    • Ever-changing networks

    • Frequent change of partners

    • ……..


    Workplace society

    Then

    Large & Pyramidal

    Procedures, rules & regulations

    Lifelong careers

    Lifelong qualifications

    Now

    Small & flat

    Communications & relations

    Multiple careers

    On-demand, just-in-time learning

    Workplace & Society


    Post-industrial: Expectations

    • Communication

    • Learning on-demand, just-in-time

    • Team-work

    • Personal responsibilities

    • Solving problems

    • Integrating expertise

    • Conceptualising complex matters

    • …….


    Post-industrial: Expectations

    • Readiness to adapt to changes

    • Self-reflection

    • Self-discipline & Self-management

    • Capacity to query, challenge, innovate

    • Flexible human relations

    • Crossing occupational borders

    • Moving across cultures

    • …….


    However
    However,

    If the “end” of education is changed

    • No longer mainly for credentials

    • No longer limited to knowledge and skills

  • Education has broader ends to meet

  • There are lifelong attributes to develop among young people


  • Lifelong attributes

    • Optimism about life

    • Passion about nature

    • Commitment to society

    • Commitment to nation

    • Perseverance amidst odds

    • Readiness to expand one’s capacity

    • Broad base experiences

    • Experience in organising

    • ……


    Lifelong attributes

    • Appreciation of arts and music

    • Attitude of helping and caring

    • Seriousness about the details

    • Eagerness to interact with people

    • Ability of a second or third language

    • Some experience of science discovery

    • Some experience of social investigations

    • ……


    Lifelong attributes

    • Love for peace

    • Sense of justice

    • Consciousness of equity

    • Awareness of the deprived

    • Comfort with other cultures

    • Basic understanding of sex

    • Facing moral dilemmas

    • Rudimentary analysis and synthesis

    • ……


    Lifelong attributes

    • Belief in rationality

    • Tolerance of diversity and plurality

    • ….

      Many of such are achievable

      only during the schooling years!


    Implications for education
    Implications for education

    • Drastic decrease of manual workers

    • Expanded need for higher education

    • Challenge to occupational identity

    • Intensified human interactions and demand for human attributes

    • Demand for more flexible learning modes and paths


    Meanwhile …

    New understanding of Learning!



    Professional accountability
    Professional Accountability

    Basic questions: What is learning?

    • How people learn?

      versus

      • How do we teach?

      • How do we organize teaching?

      • How do we supervise the organisation of teaching?


    What is learning
    What is learning?

    “Learning is the transmission of knowledge from those who know to those who don’t.”


    Assumptions about education
    Assumptions about Education

    • Learning is about absorption of knowledge

    • Learning takes place in institutions (schools, classrooms, subjects, syllabuses, examinations)

    • Learning takes place in individual brains

    • Learning takes place before using

    • Learning is about the known

    • Education is about knowledge & skills

    • Everybody learns the same

    • ……


    Assumptions about education1
    Assumptions about Education

    • There are smart kids & dumb kids

      • Some can learn, some cannot

      • Only smart kids deserve more education

      • School help keep the gate for learners

    • Education helps classify human beings

      • Education helps ranks human beings

      • Human beings are trained into occupations

      • Learning is more specialised when higher

    • ………..


    However1
    However, …..

    • Learning is the transmission of knowledge from those who know to those who don’t know.


    What is learning1
    What is learning?

    • Learning is the transmission of knowledge from those who know to those who don’t know.

    • Learning is the learners’ active construction of knowledge.


    Learning
    Learning

    New understanding of Learning

    • Learning as Knowledge Construction

    • Learning through Experience

    • Learning through Application

    • Learning from Co-learners

    • Learning as Improvement


    Learning1
    Learning

    Corollaries about Learning

    • Learning takes place through meaningful human activities

    • Understanding and application of knowledge are necessarily intertwined

    • Individuals learn differently


    Therefore …

    • Challenges to Paradigms


    Paradigm of screening
    Paradigm of “Screening”

    Challenges from reality:

    • Rapid expansion of higher education

    • Unemployment among less-educated

    • Middle-age unemployment


    Screening
    “Screening”

    Challenge to the paradigm:

    • Belief in innate ability

      • “There are smart kids and dumb kids”

    • Belief in using knowledge for screening

      • versus lifelong & multi-source learning

    • Belief in using single indicators (e.g. IQ)

      • versus multiple intelligence


    Paradigm of specialisation
    Paradigm of “Specialisation”

    Challenges from reality:

    • Division of labour blurred

    • Frequent change of jobs & occupations

    • Job-study mismatch

    • Demand for generic competence

    • Diluted & delayed specialisation in higher education

    • ……


    Specialisation
    “Specialisation”

    Challenges to the Paradigm:

    • Belief that education is for classifying people

    • Belief in people’s occupational identity

    • Belief that education should be more specialised at higher levels

    • ……


    Paradigm of teaching
    Paradigm of “Teaching”

    Challenge from reality:

    • Students also learn that are not taught

    • Students also learn from alternative sources

    • Technology has made acquisition of knowledge much easier


    Teaching
    “Teaching”

    Challenges to the paradigm:

    • Belief that learning is transmission of knowledge from those who know to those who don’t know

    • Belief that learning is about the known and not the unknown


    Paradigm of study
    Paradigm of “Study”

    Challenges from reality:

    • The expectation for good characters and personalities

    • The demand for human relational and social competence

    • The renewed importance for values, attitudes, emotions, ethics, principles, …

    • ………..


    Study
    “Study”

    Challenges to Paradigms

    • Belief in academic study as proxy for learning

    • Belief in classroom learning as the only reliable learning

    • Belief in examination scores as the only trustworthy measure of human capacity

    • …..


    Paradigm of schooling
    Paradigm of “Schooling”

    Challenges from reality:

    • Call for flexible learning anywhere, anytime, anybody

    • Learning is recognised beyond institutions

      • Credit-unit Bank in Korea

      • Lifelong Learning Passport in Taiwan

    • Administrative considerations have taken over learning needs


    Schooling
    “Schooling”

    Challenges to Paradigms

    • Belief that learning takes place only in schools

    • Belief that learning takes place only during structured activities

      • Classes, time-tables, subjects, specialised teachers, set menu curriculum,

    • Belief that learning should be under the control of schools and institutions


    After all

    Industrial

    analytic, regulated, structured, clear-cut, uniform, convergent, normative, neat, assertive and reducible to parameters

    Post-industrial

    holistic, flexible, loose, fuzzy, plural, divergent, liberal, complex, speculative and tolerant of multiplex concepts

    After all …



    Reform trends
    Reform trends

    • Expansion of higher education

    • Expanding learning opportunities

    • Blurring subject boundaries

    • Delay of specialisation

    • Compressing “formal” learning

    • Creating diverse learning activities

    • Introducing “moral” elements


    Reform trends1
    Reform trends

    • Reforming examinations

    • Alternative ways of organizing school learning

    • Enriched teachers/facilitators’ team

    • Strengthening of professional capacity and autonomy

    • Mobilization of community resources


    Example i
    Example I

    • Higher education:

      expansion of learning opportunities





    Education system evolution3
    Education System: Evolution

    • Europe: + 25%

    • China: +100%

    • Taiwan: oversupply

    • Korea: oversupply

    • ……


    Example ii
    Example II

    • Generic capacity:

      reduction and delay of specialization


    Specialization: Evolution

    Generic Capacity Building

    Common Core


    Specialization: Evolution

    • Engineering: Washington Accord (70%)

    • Business Schools model (50%)

    • Journalism schools model (30%)

    • Europe: Bologna Process (3 + 2 + 2)

    • UK: Foundations Degree (2 + 3 + 3)

    Generic Capacity Building

    Common Core


    Example iii
    Example III

    • Curriculum Reform:

      Broadened learning experiences


    Learning Experiences/ KLAs

    Beyond

    Classrooms

    Beyond

    Campus

    Cyber-Space

    Classrooms


    Blurring subject boundaries

    Beyond

    Classrooms

    Beyond

    Campus

    Cyber-Space

    • Key-Learning Areas (Hong Kong)

    • Co-curriculum/After School Education

    • Reduction of formal curriculum

      • Japan 30%

      • Singapore 33%

    • Rise of International Baccalaureate

    Classrooms



    Example iv
    Example IV

    • Increase of non-study learning

      Co-curricula, partnership with workplace


    International Exchange

    Visits to the Rural, Deprived

    Community Services

    Design, Music, Drama, Sports

    Internship, Placement, Mentorship

    Executives of Organisations

    Student Activities

    Study

    Classes


    Learning across Cultures

    Learning to Care

    Learning to Serve

    Creativity Learning

    Workplace Learning

    Leadership Learning

    Alternative Learning

    Academic

    Knowledge

    Classes


    Music, Sports, Art, Drama, Dance

    Mentorship

    Learning cross cultures

    Student Residence, Student Unions, Associations & Clubs, Young Leaders

    Rural Visits, NGOs, Community Services, Church

    Learning to care

    Learning to serve

    Workplace Learning

    Creativity Learning

    Internship, Practicum, Placement, Fieldwork

    Leadership Learning

    Learning to live together

    Classrooms, Libraries, Laboratories

    Academic Learning

    Classes

    Exchange, Youth Conferences


    Music, Sports, Art, Drama, Dance

    • Tacit Knowledge

    • Social Competence

    • Values Education

    • Civic Education

    • Character Education

    • Personality Education

    • Moral Education

    Mentorship

    Learning cross cultures

    Student Residence, Student Unions, Associations & Clubs, Young Leaders

    Rural Visits, NGOs, Community Services, Church

    Learning to care

    Learning to serve

    Workplace Learning

    Creativity Learning

    Internship, Practicum, Placement, Fieldwork

    Leadership Learning

    Learning to live together

    Classrooms, Libraries, Laboratories

    Academic Learning

    Classes

    Exchange, Youth Conferences


    After all1
    After all …

    We are facing

    Diversity, Uncertainty, Change, …

    Plus

    Learning anywhere, anytime


    Oecd key competencies
    OECD: Key Competencies

    • Interacting in socially heterogeneous groups

    • Acting autonomously

    • Using tools purposively and interactively

      OECD: The Definition and Selection of Competencies: Theoretical and Conceptual FoundationsProject (DeSeCo)


    Key competencies
    Key competencies

    Interacting in socially heterogeneous groups

    • The ability to relate well to others

    • The ability to cooperate

    • The ability to manage and resolve conflicts


    Key competencies1
    Key competencies

    Acting autonomously

    • The ability to act within the “big picture”

    • The ability to form and conduct life plans and personal projects

    • The ability to defend and assert one’s rights, interests, limits, and needs


    Key competencies2
    Key competencies

    Using tools purposively and interactively

    • The ability to use language, symbols, and text interactively

    • The ability to use knowledge and information interactively

    • The ability to use technology interactively



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