Asian language and culture implications for assessment and intervention
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ASIAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASSESSMENT AND INTERVENTION. I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND**. ORIGINS: East Asia (Japan, Korea, China) Southeast Asia (Philippines, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, Burma, Vietnam, Malaysia)

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I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND** INTERVENTION

  • ORIGINS:

  • East Asia (Japan, Korea, China)

  • Southeast Asia (Philippines, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, Burma, Vietnam, Malaysia)

  • South Asia (Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka)

  • KEY RELIGIONS: Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism


Southeast Asia INTERVENTION:


Between the years 2000 2010
Between the years 2000-2010: ** INTERVENTION

  • 46% growth in the U.S. Asian population—more than any other racial group

  • Chinese largest, Filipinos second largest

  • Among Asian children and youth, more than 80% are children of immigrants


Overall average income level in u s
Overall average income level in U.S.** INTERVENTION

  • Is highest for Asians

  • Asian Indians 2011 median income = $92,418


One problem for asians
One problem for Asians…** INTERVENTION

  • “model minority”

  • Needs may go unrecognized, unmet



Ii contrastng beliefs values and practices
II. CONTRASTNG BELIEFS, VALUES, AND PRACTICES** INTERVENTION

TRADITIONAL ASIAN MAINSTREAM

Fatalism Personal control over envt., one’s fate

Tradition, living with Change, future

the past orientation


TRADITIONAL ASIAN MAINSTREAM** INTERVENTION

Group welfare Self actualization,

privacy

Mutual interdependence Independence, indiv. autonomy

Hierarchy, rigid role status Equality, status determined by achievement

Conformity Challenge authority




Iii customs courtesies values
III. CUSTOMS, COURTESIES, VALUES** traditional U.S. families)

  • A. Customs and Courtesies

  • Hospitality

  • Modesty, humility

  • Respect for elders, teachers, authority figures


B communication styles
B. Communication Styles** traditional U.S. families)

  • Formal rules of communication propriety based on relative status of interlocutors

  • May be considered appropriate to ask personal questions

  • Indirectness often the norm re: touchy subjects

  • Some Asians may smile or laugh when embarrassed or angry


For example key filipino cultural values
For example, key Filipino cultural values: traditional U.S. families)


Iv health care and disabilities
IV. HEALTH CARE AND DISABILITIES** traditional U.S. families)

Visible vs. invisible disabilities

Disabilities fate, karma, sins committed by ancestors

Families may be ashamed to bring a child for help if his/her disability represents sins committed by parents/ancestors


As slps
As SLPs…** traditional U.S. families)

  • We may have trouble getting families to acknowledge disabilities and sign IEPs for special education services

  • What can we do when this happens?


V asian education
V. ASIAN EDUCATION** traditional U.S. families)

  • Hugely valued

  • In 2011, 50% of Asians 25 yrs. and older had a Bachelor’s degree or higher compared with 28.5% of all Americans

  • Asian children attend preschool at a higher rate than other groups


In most asian countries there is
In most Asian countries, there is:** traditional U.S. families)

  • Great respect for teachers

  • Heavy reliance on rote learning, memorization

  • Teachers are very authoritarian

  • Class is formal; teachers lecture

  • Teachers don’t admit mistakes


Differences asian and american schools stevenson compared beijing chicago
Differences--Asian and American Schools (Stevenson—compared Beijing & Chicago)



Abboud kim 2007 cited in text
Abboud & Kim 2007 (cited in text):** (Stevenson—compared Beijing & Chicago)

  • Role of Asian children in families: 1) respect elders and obey parents, 2) work hard and do well in school to secure a bright future

  • Many Asian parents work hard all day and morph into educators at night—that is their role

  • Asian parents put academics first, while other parents often put sports/athletics first; kids are too tired to study


Vi asian language considerations
VI. ASIAN LANGUAGE CONSIDERATIONS** (Stevenson—compared Beijing & Chicago)

  • Introduction

    Many languages have numerous dialects


Some languages are tonal
Some Languages are Tonal** (Stevenson—compared Beijing & Chicago)

  • Khmer, Japanese, Korean not tonal languages

  • Vietnamese, Chinese, Laotian are tonal; each tone represents a meaning change

  • Vietnamese has 6 tones, for example


Please know in detail
Please know in detail… (Stevenson—compared Beijing & Chicago)

  • The charts on pp.

  • The chart on p. is not on the test 


Linguistically
Linguistically… (Stevenson—compared Beijing & Chicago)


For example in singapore people speak don t need to memo each lang for exam
For example, in Singapore, people speak: (don’t need to memo each lang. for exam)**

  • Bengali

  • Chinese Malay

  • East Punjabi Sindhi

  • English Teluga

  • Hindi Thai

  • Japanese Korean

  • Java


Vii implications for professionals
VII. IMPLICATIONS FOR PROFESSIONALS** memo each lang. for exam

  • We may need to address the husband first because the wife is subordinate

  • It may be disgraceful for the family to admit to or discuss a child’s disability; entire family lineage disgraced—intervention may be rejected

  • Some families do not believe that it is important to talk with young children and babies; may not be open to early intervention


Narrative skills strong predictors of later language outcomes

This study attempted to create some norms for evaluating narrative skills of Cantonese-speaking children

Studied typically-developing subjects and those with specific language impairment (SLI)

To, Stokes, Cheung, & T’sou (June 2010 Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research) Narrative assessment for Cantonese-speaking children.**




So we know that
So we know that…** outcomes

  • Assessment of children’s narrative skills is very promising  differentiating lang. difference from LI


It is important for us to understand filipinos
It is important for us to understand Filipinos…** outcomes

In 2000, there were 24,516 Filipinos in Sacramento County

  • In 2012, this had increased to 41,455 (69% increase)


Former students from this class
Former students from this class: outcomes

  • Filipinos predominantly Roman Catholic—enlist help of priest, church members

  • Family--huge sacrifices to come to U.S. for a better life for Ch

  • 150 dialects




I have found that asians
I have found that Asians…** outcomes

  • Are generally terrific to work with

  • Very appreciative

  • If they understand WHY, they will do carry over


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