Chiral05, February-17-2005, RIKEN
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T. Yamazaki (RIKEN) Y. Akaishi (KEK), A. Dote (KEK), M. Iwasaki (RIKEN), T. Suzuki (Uni Tokyo), PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chiral05, February-17-2005, RIKEN. Further experimental search for strange nuclear systems Kbar Nuclear Clusters from QGP to QGB Quark-Gluon Plasma Quark-Gluon Bound System. T. Yamazaki (RIKEN)

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T. Yamazaki (RIKEN) Y. Akaishi (KEK), A. Dote (KEK), M. Iwasaki (RIKEN), T. Suzuki (Uni Tokyo),

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T yamazaki riken y akaishi kek a dote kek m iwasaki riken t suzuki uni tokyo

Chiral05, February-17-2005, RIKEN

Further experimental search for

strange nuclear systems

Kbar Nuclear Clusters

from QGP to QGB

Quark-Gluon Plasma Quark-Gluon Bound System

T. Yamazaki (RIKEN)

Y. Akaishi (KEK), A. Dote (KEK),

M. Iwasaki (RIKEN), T. Suzuki (Uni Tokyo),

P. Kienle (IMEP, Vienna), K. Suzuki (TU, Munich),

N. Herrmann (Heidelberg )


Unique features of kaonic nuclei i 0 kbarn pair attraction condensed nuclei

Unique features of kaonic nuclei* I=0 KbarN pair attraction * condensed nuclei

Non-existing nuclei:Normal nuclei :

strongly bound K- (narrow)weakly bound K- (broad)

(pp)S=0,T=1, (pn)S=0,T=1d: (pn)S=1,T=0

(ppp)S=1/2, J=3/2-, T=3/2t: (pnn)J=1/2,T=1/2

(ppn)S=1/2,J=3/2-,T=3/2

** condensed:large spin-orbit splitting: p3/2 lowered

** large internal nucleon energy: EN >>0

** K- potential: very deep EK = E - EN <<0

--->> Relativistic correction: energy pushed down


T yamazaki riken y akaishi kek a dote kek m iwasaki riken t suzuki uni tokyo

_

Nuclear KNN bound states

S = 0

T = 3/2 Unbound

S = 1

T = 1/2 Above the L*+n threshold

S = 0

T = 1/2 E = -48 MeV G= 61 MeV

Strange dibaryon

Iso-doublet

K- (pn) S=0,T=1

Modified --->> ~ -90 MeV

Observed (FINUDA) ~ -90 MeV?


Population mechanism role of l 1405

KEK E471

Population mechanismRole of L1405

S1(3140)

FINUDA

Doorway

continumm

fragmentation

pL1405

ppK-

S0(3115)


Key issues

Key issues

Experimental signatures for high density?

DECoulomb, DEls, decay particle correlation,…

Formation channel vs Decay channel

Invariant mass spectroscopy L + d, L + p + p

Dibaryon system: (pp)T=1K-, (pn)T=1K-

Double strangeness systems: ppK-K-, pppK-K-,..

Toward multi-strangeness high-density matter

heavy-ion reactions

QGB with K-:kaon condensation


T yamazaki riken y akaishi kek a dote kek m iwasaki riken t suzuki uni tokyo

E = ENucl shrunk: >>0

+ EK deep


Nuclear shrinkage

Nuclear Shrinkage ?

LS splitting p1/2-p3/2

DELS ~ 60 MeV!!

Coulomb displacement energy

DEC (1,1) - (1,-1)

= 0.1 MeV for NNNK-

= 2.1 MeV for a normal

charged sphere (A=3)


T yamazaki riken y akaishi kek a dote kek m iwasaki riken t suzuki uni tokyo

Calculated

spectral shape

(Akaishi)

Tp = 1.5 GeV/c

L* compound


Discovery of k nnn bound states at kek m iwasaki et al 2004

Discovery of K-NNN Bound States at KEKM. Iwasaki et al. 2004

4He(stopped K-,p)K-pnn (T=1)

Mc2 = 3117 MeV, G~20 MeV

BK =190 MeV

4He(stopped K-,n)K-ppn (T=0,1)

Mc2 = 3140 MeV, G ~ 20 MeV

BK = 170 MeV

p3/2-p1/2


Decay pattern from a dense system

Decay pattern from a dense system

Strong momentum correlation

in 3-body decay

ppK- ---> p + L

---> p + S+ + p-

pppK- ---> p + p + L


T yamazaki riken y akaishi kek a dote kek m iwasaki riken t suzuki uni tokyo

L

d

tK ~ tfreeze-out~ 10 fm/c


Search for k clusters as residues in heavy ion reactions

Search for K- clusters as residues in heavy-ion reactions

  • High-density medium accommodated in QGP fire balls

  • Deep self-trapping centers of K- produced in fire balls

  • Slightly delayed decay after the freeze-out: tK > tfreeze-out

  • Invariant-mass spectroscopy for decay fragments

    Single-K-ppK- ---> L + p

    ppnK- ---> L + d

    pppK- ---> L + p + p

    ppnnK----> L + t

    pppnK----> L + 3He

    Double-K-ppK-K----> L + L

    pppK-K----> L + L

    pppnK-K----> L + Ld


Fopi at gsi from kutsche phd 1999

FOPI at GSI from Kutsche (PhD) 1999

Superb L identification


Invariant mass spectroscopy in h i reactions 1 9 gev u ni ni m inv d l 3140 17 ppnk t 0

Invariant-mass spectroscopy in H. I. Reactions1.9 GeV/u Ni + NiMinv(d+L) = 3140(17) [ppnK-]T=0


T yamazaki riken y akaishi kek a dote kek m iwasaki riken t suzuki uni tokyo

ppK-K- fragment

expected at 10 GeV/u c.m.

L

L

Jaffe’s H di-baryon?

uud-ubar-s-ubar-s-uud not uuddss ?


Results of extremely proton rich kaonic nuclei

Results of extremely proton-rich kaonic nuclei

ppppK-

pppK-K-

ppppK-K-

pppK-

ppppK-

Proton

total B.E. 96.7 MeV

E(K) 96.7 MeV

Γ 12.5 MeV

Rrms 0.81 fm

ρmax 9.2 ρ0

total B.E. 75.1 MeV

E(K) 75.1 MeV

Γ 161.8 MeV

Rrms 0.92 fm

ρmax 9.9 ρ0

added

3 fm

3 fm

K- added

K- added

ppppK-K-

pppK-K-

total B.E. 217.3 MeV

E(K) 108.7 MeV

Γ 41.2 MeV

Rrms 0.73 fm

ρmax 14.1 ρ0

total B.E. 205.7 MeV

E(K) 102.8 MeV

Γ 51.9 MeV

Rrms 0.65 fm

ρmax 21.6 ρ0

Proton

added

3 fm

3 fm

tentative

3fm

3fm

3fm

E(K) = 75.1 MeV

[ 77 MeV ]

ρmax = 5.09 ρ(α)

[ 5.1 ρ(α) ]

E(K) = 102.8 MeV

[ 103 MeV ]

ρmax = 11.12 ρ(α)

[ 12.5 ρ(α) ]

E(K) = 108.6 MeV

[ 110 MeV ]

ρ(0) = 7.24 ρ(α)

[ 7.5 ρ(α) ]


3 he k k x @ 1 8 gev c ags e836 ll n 3170 x pn 3199 pppk k 3422 l l n 3752

3He(K-,K+)X @ 1.8 GeV/c AGS E836LLn: 3170X-pn: 3199pppK-K-: 3422L*L*n: 3752

3000 MeV

LLn: 3170

X-pn: 3199

3400

pppK-K-: 3422

L*L*n: 3752

3800


T yamazaki riken y akaishi kek a dote kek m iwasaki riken t suzuki uni tokyo

Yield: Prediction by chemical equilibrium model:

A. Andronic and P. Braun-Munzinger, priv.comm., 16/10/03

Observed

Combinatorial background

R = S/N

= BR(Kppn -->Ld)YKppn

/(YLYd) ~ 0.004

YL~ 0.15, Yd ~ 2

BR(Kppn->Ld) ~0.1(assumed)

Thus,

Observed : YKppn ~ 0.012

ppK-K-

expected at 10 GeV/u cm

Prediction: YKppn ~ 0.01


Strangeness at high nuclear densities

Schematic

Spontaneously, dynamically

organized

high density matter

without the aid of gravity!

Strangeness at high nuclear densities

Nuclear incompressibility

isovercome by the

Strong K--p attraction

At high density K- matter

[K- p] + [K- p] + …+ n +…

may be more stable


T yamazaki riken y akaishi kek a dote kek m iwasaki riken t suzuki uni tokyo

Hadrons in Nuclear Matter

[GeV]

1.6

1.5

-

K/N=3/2

p =uud

1.4

av.

-

1.3

K/N=1

1.2

-

1.1

K/N=1/2

1.0

0.9

0.8

-

-

K =us

0.7

0.6

r/r0

0.5

4

5

6

0

2

1

3

7

Implication of KEK exp:

BKppn(obs) = 173 MeV

BKpnn(obs) = 195 MeV

--->> enhanced KN

in medium by 14%

Chiral symmetry restoration?

Deeply bound p-

--->> enhanced pN by 35%

QCD phase transition

MN < EKN < ML: no strong decay, but weak decay:

--> Metastable: nsec

EKN < MN: absolutely stable:

Strangelet, strange star

Kaon condensation


Quark condensate diagram kaonic nuclei high density t 0 quark phase

Quark-Gluon Bound System

Energy contour??

Ground state energy??

Quark Condensate diagramKaonic Nuclei: High density, T=0; Quark Phase

Nucleon radius:

rN ~ 0.8 fm

Nucleon volume:

vN ~ 2.1 fm3

Nucleon density:

rN = 1/vN

~ 0.47 fm-3~ 2.8 r0

Compaction factor:

r0/rN~ 1/2.8

--> critical density

K-p

subar-uud

no hard core

ubar-u

attraction


T yamazaki riken y akaishi kek a dote kek m iwasaki riken t suzuki uni tokyo

UK(r)=DEcore(r) + UK-core(r)


T yamazaki riken y akaishi kek a dote kek m iwasaki riken t suzuki uni tokyo

K- clusters

Cold, dense &microscopic nuclear systems

a New Paradigm - QGB - so far untouched

chiral symmetry restoration?quark-gluon phase?

exotic nuclear dynamics, strange matter/star, kaon condensation,……


Monoenergetic protons at 510 mev c

KEK E471 from 4He

FINUDA from 7Li,…

Monoenergetic protons at 510 MeV/c

Tamura et al.

Yield of 4LH

4He/7Li ~ 1/4

Yield of 4LHe

4He/7Li ~ 1/3

FINUDA Yield of 4LHe


T yamazaki riken y akaishi kek a dote kek m iwasaki riken t suzuki uni tokyo

Relativistic effect


K p p invariant mass

Cos(Lp) < - 0.86

S0p

Lp

mp+ mp+ mK- = 2370

mp + mL = 2054

(K -, p, p) invariant mass


T yamazaki riken y akaishi kek a dote kek m iwasaki riken t suzuki uni tokyo

pppnK-

ppnK-

+2p+n

pppK-

ppppK-+2n

+p

ppppK-

+2n

6BeK-+pnn

6BeK-

+p+2n

9BK-


D 2 bubble chamber experiment

D2 bubble chamber experiment

d + K- ---> ps + L1405 + p-

“n” + K- ---> L1405 + p-


T yamazaki riken y akaishi kek a dote kek m iwasaki riken t suzuki uni tokyo

Evidence for ppK-(1976) decaying to p + S + p???!!! ps: high momentum componentMinv(Sp): distributedMissing mass of (K-,p-) ?Invariant mass of p + S + p ?


T yamazaki riken y akaishi kek a dote kek m iwasaki riken t suzuki uni tokyo

Proposed FOPI experiment (I)d + 4 GeV p ---> p + L* + K0 + p (~10 nb/sr) ( --> pL* + K0 + p ) --> ppK- + K0 + pmissing massppK---> p + Linvariant mass


Small momentum transfer soft landing pppk momentum mev c

L1405=L* cascade reaction in 4HeInitial p + “n” --> L* + K0 + pL* + “ppn” --> L*pp + n --> pppK- + n“nK0” + “ppn” --> ppnK0 + n (“Kaon Transfer”) pppK----> p + p + L (invariant mass)L* + “ppn” --> L*pn + p --> ppnK- + p“pK-” + “ppn” --> ppnK- + p (“Kaon Transfer”) ppnK----> d + L (invariant mass) L* + “pn” --> L*p + n --> ppK- + nppK----> p + L (invariant mass)

Small momentum transfer (soft landing)

pppK- momentum

(MeV/c)

L1405 kinetic energy (MeV)


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