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Perspectives in Psychology . Psychodynamic Behavioral Humanistic Biological Cognitive. Psychodynamic Perspective (Freud). Human behavior is motivated by the unconscious processes of which we may not be aware

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perspectives in psychology
Perspectives in Psychology
  • Psychodynamic
  • Behavioral
  • Humanistic
  • Biological
  • Cognitive
psychodynamic perspective freud
Psychodynamic Perspective (Freud)
  • Human behavior is motivated by the unconscious processes of which we may not be aware
    • Within the unconscious there exist basic biological urges & drives that affect much of our behavior
behavioral perspective
Behavioral Perspective
  • Only concerned with psychological processes that could be observed directly and measured
  • Focused on how humans & animals developed learned associations between a stimulus & a response through use of rewards & punishments
humanistic perspective
Humanistic Perspective
  • Argued that human beings are dehumanized when you try to reduce their behavior down to learned associations dictated by environment
  • Believed humans have free will, are self-determined, & set their own goals which they seek throughout lifetime
biological perspective
Biological Perspective
  • This perspective has always been with psychology (Freud)
  • Attempt to understand the nature of brain functioning & its relations to behavior
  • Try to understand other biological influences on human behavior
cognitive perspective
Cognitive Perspective
  • Newest area to emerge in psychology
  • Try to understand how the brain is organized
    • activities involved in thinking, reasoning, decision making, memory, problem solving, & all other forms of higher mental processes
two things to remember about the field of psychology
Two things to remember about the field of psychology
  • Began as a scientific effort to understand normal human behavior & thinking. Applications to disordered behavior came much later
  • Even though psychology has many perspectives, most psychologists tend to be eclectic
what do psychologists do areas of psychological study
What do psychologists do? Areas of Psychological Study
  • Clinical & counseling psychologists
  • Education & school psychologists
  • Developmental psychologists
  • Biopsychologists & experimental psychologists
  • Industrial/organizational psychologists
  • Social & personality psychologists
the scientific attitude
The Scientific Attitude
  • Curiosity: Passion to explore & understand without misleading
  • Skepticism
    • What do you mean?
    • How do you know?
  • Humility: Must be able to reject own ideas
scientific research
Scientific Research
  • Hypothesis: Specific, testable proposition about something one wants to study
    • Stated to establish in clear,precise termswhat one believes may be true, and how one will know if it is not
  • Operational Definitions: Statements describing the exact operations or methods used in research investigation
  • Variables: Specific factors or characteristics that are manipulated and measured in research
  • Confirmation Bias: Looking only for evidence that confirms a hypothesis
    • Must look for contradictory as well as supporting evidence for all hypotheses
assessing the quality of evidence reliability validity in scientific research
Assessing the Quality of Evidence: Reliability & Validity in Scientific Research
  • Reliability: The degree to which the evidence is repeatable
  • Validity: The degree to which the evidence accurately assesses the topic being studied
role of theories
Role of Theories
  • The goal of the scientific method is to decide which of many hypotheses BEST explains available data.
  • The hypothesis one adopts is the “BEST GUESS” based on current evidence, not necessarily the “final truth.”
  • A theory is an organized set of hypotheses that is widely accepted as a TENTATIVE explanation for a phenomenon.
four main goals of the scientific method
Four Main Goals of the Scientific Method
  • Describe the phenomenon
  • Make predictions about the phenomenon
  • Control the phenomenon to ask specific questions about it
  • Explain the phenomenon
scientific method
Scientific Method
  • Observe
  • Form theory
  • Generate Hypothesis
  • Research & Observations
    • Operational Definitions
  • Interpret Results
  • Disseminate Results
    • Replication
research methods
Research Methods
  • Naturalistic Observations
  • Case Studies
  • Surveys
  • Correlational Method
  • Experimentation
naturalistic observation
Naturalistic Observation
  • Systematic study of behavior in natural settings
  • Various aspects of behavior are carefully observed in the settings where such behavior naturally occurs
pros cons of naturalistic observation
Pros & Cons of Naturalistic Observation

+ Can observe behavior in “real world”

+ Participants likely to act normally

- Can’t assume cause & effect of observed behavior

  • researcher has no control over any variables
  • can only describe (not explain) observed behavior
case studies
Case Studies
  • Detailed information about individuals is used to develop general principles about behavior
pros cons of case study method
Pros & Cons of Case Study Method

+ Can offer valuable insights about unusual behavior

- Researchers’ emotional attachments to individuals can reduce their objectivity

- Difficult to generalize results/information from one or a few people to others

survey method
Survey Method
  • Ask large numbers of individuals to complete questionnaires designed to yield information on specific aspects of their behavior & attitudes
advantages of survey method
Advantages of Survey Method
  • Large amounts of information can be easily gathered
  • Shifts over time can be noted
  • Can provide accurate predictions about events
disadvantages of survey method
Disadvantages of Survey Method
  • People may not respond accurately or truthfully
  • People may not accurately remember
  • People included must be truly representative of larger groups to whom the findings are to be generalized
  • Wording of questions may affect results
correlational method
Correlational Method
  • Observing/measuring two or more variables in order to determine whether changes in one are accompanied by changes in the other
key points on correlational method
Key points on Correlational Method
  • Measure two existing variables (nothing is manipulated by researcher)
  • Yields a correlation coefficient
    • indicates the strength of the relationship (from -1.0 to + 1.0)
    • indicates the direction of the relationship (positive or negative)
advantages of correlational method
Advantages of Correlational Method
  • Can be used to study behavior in many real life settings
  • Highly efficient & can yield large amounts of data in short time
  • Can be extended to include many variables at once
disadvantage of correlational method
Disadvantage of Correlational Method
  • Findings are not conclusive with respect to cause-and-effect relationships
experimentation
Experimentation
  • Systematically alter one or more variables in order to determine whether such changes will influence some aspect of behavior
key elements of experimental method
Key Elements of Experimental Method
  • Random Assignment to experimental conditions
  • Control Group & Experimental Group(s)
  • Independent Variable
  • Dependent Variable
problems with experimental method
Problems with Experimental Method
  • Experimenter effects: Unintentional influence exerted by researchers on research participants
  • Demand Characteristics: Implicit pressure on research participants to act in ways consistent with a researcher’s expectations
    • Double-blind procedure
  • May lack real world validity
selecting human participants for research
Selecting Human Participants for Research
  • Sampling: Process of selecting participants to study from the overall population
    • For the study of results to apply, or GENERALIZE, to the entire population, a RANDOM SAMPLE should be selected. Truly random samples (rarely achieved) allow every member of a population an equal chance of being selected
    • A BIASED SAMPLE is a nonrandom selection of participants from the population
    • REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLES are random selections of participants from a presumed “typical” segment of the population
    • RANDOM ASSIGNMENT is the practice of assigning participants to experimental conditions by chance, in order to minimize preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
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