A bstract
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 3

A bstract PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 121 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Need . A bstract . http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11259&page=8. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2010/Document/html/uih/uih_2.htm. Knowledge Base:. Morphine signaling system Animal /human cells can make morphine Morphine has is on receptor.

Download Presentation

A bstract

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


A bstract

Need

Abstract

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11259&page=8

http://www.healthypeople.gov/2010/Document/html/uih/uih_2.htm

Knowledge Base:

  • Morphine signaling system

  • Animal /human cells can make morphine

  • Morphine has is on receptor.

  • Morphine can couple with this receptor and release nitric oxide

  • Low level of morphine can down regulate immune respone

  • How ever, high level of morphine can stimulate tumor growth

Previous studies have shown that morphine has the capabilities to both promote and inhibit tumor growth. The key factor that establishes the fine line between the two opposite occurrences is the concentration of the morphine being administered. The objective of this study was to determine the differences of the expression of certain genes at low concentrations of morphine in both healthy and cancerous cells.

Data from a DNA microarray was analyzed on SpotFire Decision Site to identify the varying expressions of key genes that are involved in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). After healthy white blood cells and U937 cancer cells were exposed to physiological levels of morphine, two of these genes were discovered to be up-regulated in healthy cells and down-regulated in cancer cells, a significant distinction that could lead to implications of cancer detection and possibly alternate treatment.

In addition to SpotFire data analysis, a follow-up experiment was conducted to examine the effects of morphine on healthy hemocytes treated with malathion. The results of the experiment showed a significant correlation between Malathion and the control groups when comparing form factor. Further experimentation showed that malathion mimics morphine's effect on hemocytes; this was proven by blocking its effect with Naloxone and L-name. Since opiate and nicotinic signaling systems are very similar in invertebrates and human cells, our results indicate that Malathion may affect tumor development via opiate and nicotinic signaling. The impact of Malathion on environment and human health should be further studied.

Studies have shown that nicotine can effect morphine signaling in animal and human cells

The mechanism for malation to kill insects is through nicotin/actocholine receptor

Question

There was no report that malathion effect on opiate signaling system. And the mechanism that malathion can cause cancer development is not clear.

http://www.jyi.org/research/re.php?id=88

Mosquito Eradication

Malathion

http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/archives/fdaDrugInfo.cfm?archiveid=9182

http://www.aedesmosquito.com/

ECHIBURU-CHAU et al. 2008

Literature Review

http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/a/a_06/a_06_m/a_06_m_mou/a_06_m_mou.html

Zhu et al. 2009

Purposes:

  • The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate Malathioneffects on opiate morphine signaling in healthy animal cells and its implication with cancer development

Hypothesis:

  • H(a): The form factor of cells treated with Malathion will be significantly higher than that of the control group’s form factor. Morphine will alter the normal expression of genes related to the nAChR in cancer cells as compared to normal cells.

  • H(0): The form factor of cells treated with Malathion will have no statistical difference from control cell form factor. Morphine will have no effect on expression of genes related to the nAChR in cancer cells as compared to normal cells.


A bstract

Microarray Analysis

Analyze Microarray Data

Methodology:

Hemocyte Extraction

Search for genes for interest

Divide Hemocytes into Six-Well Plates

Take down data from microarray and graph to compare gene expression percent down

Malathion and Naloxone

Malathion and L-name

Control

Morphine

Malathion

Morphine and Naloxone

Morphine and L-name

Take Pictures

Calculate and Analyze Form Factor

Statistical Analysis (TTest)

Graph 1a: This graph shows the effect of morphine on gene expression in white blood cells. The graph shows by what percent genes are down regulated.

Graph 1b: This graph shows the effect of morphine on gene expression in U937 Cells (Cancer Cells). The graph shows by what percent genes are down regulated.

Graph 2a: This graph shows the effects of various opiates on malathion contamination as well as their effect on morphine immediately after exposure to each.

Graph 2b: This graph shows the effects of various opiates on malathion contamination as well as their effect on morphine one hour after the various groups were exposed to each.


Discussion

Morphine

?

Malathion

Nicotinic Receptor

μ3/μ4 Receptor

Nitric Oxide Syntase

Discussion

Healthy Cells

Cancer Cells

Picture 2: Malathion’s effect on hemocytes after one hour of exposure time.

Picture 1: Control hemocytescells one hour after dissection

Hemocytes with Malathion Exposure

Normal Hemocytes

Other organophosphate pesticides effects on healthy cells

Malathion’s effect on cancer cells

Malathion specific pathway

Interrupts

Normal Function

Effects on:

Conclusion

Morphine effects the expression of many genes including ones relating to the nAChR differently in healthy cells and in cancer cells.

Malathion may have an indirect or direct correlation to cancer development.

Future Studies

Bibliography

Cabello Gertrudis, Valenzuela Mario, VilaxaArnaldo, DuránViviana, Isolde Rudolph, Hrepic Nicolas, and Gloria Calaf; A Rat Mammary Tumor Model Induced by the Organophosphorous Pesticides Parathion and Malathion, Possibly through Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition; Environmental Health Perspectives; vol 109; pgs 471-479; May 2001

Enviormental Toxins. "Cancer Caused By Environmental Toxins."; Web. 15 Sept. 2010. <http://ezinearticles.com/?Cancer-Caused-By-Environmental-Toxins&id=648200>.

Ishikawa, M., Tanno, K., Kamo, A., Takayanagi, Y., Sasaki, K., Enhancement of tumor growth by morphine and its possible mechanism in mice;Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 16, 762-766.

George B. Stefano, John D. Burrill, Sergei Labur, Julie Blake, Patrick Cadet; “Regulation of various genes in human leukocytes acutely exposed to morphine: expression microarray analysis”; Med SciMonit; Published: 2005.05.05

George B. Stefano, Richard M. Kream, Kirk J. Mantione, Melinda Sheehan, Patrick Cadet, Wei Zhu, Thomas V. Bilfinger, and Tobias Esch; “Endogenous Morphine/Nitric Oxide-Coupled Regulation of Cellular Physiology and Gene Expression: Implications for Cancer Biology”; Published in June 2008.

Gupta, K., Kshirsagar, S., Chang, L, Schwartz, R., Law, PY., Yee, D., Hebbel, RP., Morphine stimulates angiogenesis by activating proangiogenic and survival-promoting signaling and promotes breast tumor growth [Electronic version]. Cancer Research, 62, 4491-4498.

  • Loguinov A, Anderson L, Crosby G, Yukhananov R (2001). "Gene expression following acute morphine administration". Physiol Genomics6 (3): 169–81. PMID 11526201

    Marilie D. Gammon et. al.; “Enviormental Toxins and Breast Cancer on Long Island. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon DNA Adducts”; August 2002; Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention; Vol. 11; 677–685.

    Maureen R. Gwinn, Diana L. Whipkey, Lora B. Tennant, and Ainsley Weston; Differential Gene Expression in Normal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Treated with Malathion Monitored by DNA Microarrays; Environmental Health Perspectives; vol 113; pg 1046-1051; August 2005

    Matthew R. Bonner, Joseph Coble, Aaron Blair, Laura E. Beane Freeman, Jane A. Hoppin Dale P. Sandler, and Michael C. R. Alavanja; Malathion Exposure and the Incidence of Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study; American Journal of Epidemiology; Vol. 166; Pgs 1023-1034; May 17, 2007

    "UNDERSTANDING ANGIOGENESIS." Angiogenesis Foundation. Web. 17 Sept. 2010. <http://www.angio.org/ua.php>.

    Stefano GB, Hartman A, Bilfinger TV, Magazine HI, Liu Y, Casares F, Goligorsky MS; Presence of the mu3 opiate receptor in endothelial cells. Coupling to nitric oxide production and vasodilation; Journal of Biological Chemistry; vol270; pgs 30290-30293; December 22, 1995

    Stefano George B., Kream Richard M., Mantione Kirk J., Sheehan Melinda, Cadet Patrick, Zhu Wei, Bilfinger Thomas V., and Esch Tobias; “Endogenous Morphine/Nitric Oxide-Coupled Regulation of Cellular Physiology and Gene Expression: Implications for Cancer Biology”; Semin Cancer Biol; vol 18, pgs 199–210; June 2008

    Zhu W, Cadet P, Baggerman G, Mantione KJ, Stefano GB; Human white blood cells synthesize morphine: CYP2D6 modulation; J Immunol; vol 175; pgs 7357-7362; December 2005

    Zhu Yu Cheng, Snodgrass Gordon L., Chen Ming Shun; Enhanced esterase gene expression and activity in a Malathion resistant strain of the tarnished plant bug, Lyguslineolaris; Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; vol 34; pgs 1175–1186; May 24 2004


  • Login