Need . A bstract . http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11259&page=8. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2010/Document/html/uih/uih_2.htm. Knowledge Base:. Morphine signaling system Animal /human cells can make morphine Morphine has is on receptor.
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Previous studies have shown that morphine has the capabilities to both promote and inhibit tumor growth. The key factor that establishes the fine line between the two opposite occurrences is the concentration of the morphine being administered. The objective of this study was to determine the differences of the expression of certain genes at low concentrations of morphine in both healthy and cancerous cells.
Data from a DNA microarray was analyzed on SpotFire Decision Site to identify the varying expressions of key genes that are involved in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). After healthy white blood cells and U937 cancer cells were exposed to physiological levels of morphine, two of these genes were discovered to be up-regulated in healthy cells and down-regulated in cancer cells, a significant distinction that could lead to implications of cancer detection and possibly alternate treatment.
In addition to SpotFire data analysis, a follow-up experiment was conducted to examine the effects of morphine on healthy hemocytes treated with malathion. The results of the experiment showed a significant correlation between Malathion and the control groups when comparing form factor. Further experimentation showed that malathion mimics morphine's effect on hemocytes; this was proven by blocking its effect with Naloxone and L-name. Since opiate and nicotinic signaling systems are very similar in invertebrates and human cells, our results indicate that Malathion may affect tumor development via opiate and nicotinic signaling. The impact of Malathion on environment and human health should be further studied.
Studies have shown that nicotine can effect morphine signaling in animal and human cells
The mechanism for malation to kill insects is through nicotin/actocholine receptor
There was no report that malathion effect on opiate signaling system. And the mechanism that malathion can cause cancer development is not clear.
ECHIBURU-CHAU et al. 2008
Zhu et al. 2009
Analyze Microarray Data
Search for genes for interest
Divide Hemocytes into Six-Well Plates
Take down data from microarray and graph to compare gene expression percent down
Malathion and Naloxone
Malathion and L-name
Morphine and Naloxone
Morphine and L-name
Calculate and Analyze Form Factor
Statistical Analysis (TTest)
Graph 1a: This graph shows the effect of morphine on gene expression in white blood cells. The graph shows by what percent genes are down regulated.
Graph 1b: This graph shows the effect of morphine on gene expression in U937 Cells (Cancer Cells). The graph shows by what percent genes are down regulated.
Graph 2a: This graph shows the effects of various opiates on malathion contamination as well as their effect on morphine immediately after exposure to each.
Graph 2b: This graph shows the effects of various opiates on malathion contamination as well as their effect on morphine one hour after the various groups were exposed to each.
Nitric Oxide Syntase
Picture 2: Malathion’s effect on hemocytes after one hour of exposure time.
Picture 1: Control hemocytescells one hour after dissection
Hemocytes with Malathion Exposure
Other organophosphate pesticides effects on healthy cells
Malathion’s effect on cancer cells
Malathion specific pathway
Morphine effects the expression of many genes including ones relating to the nAChR differently in healthy cells and in cancer cells.
Malathion may have an indirect or direct correlation to cancer development.
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