Uses of the nominative and accusative cases
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Uses of the nominative and accusative cases:. Adpositions governing the accusative:. Accusative forms of the personal pronouns:. Gender:.

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Gender
Gender:

Usually, males are denoted by masculine nouns (e.g. nara- `man', masc.) and females by feminine nouns (e.g. strã- `woman', fem.); the gender assigned to nouns denoting sexless things has no clear semantic basis.

There are, however, some fairly reliable correlations between a noun's gender and the form of its stem. e.g. stems in a are generally masculine and neuter, while stems in long vowels are mostly feminine.


Short a stem declension a va horse masc
Short-a stem declension: aśva- `horse' (masc.)


Short a stem declension d na gift neut
Short-a stem declension: dàna- `gift' (neut.)



Characteristics of the four thematic classes
Characteristics of the four thematic classes

1. The stem always ends in a.

2. The stem doesn't exhibit vowel- grade alternations.


Characteristics of the four thematic classes1
Characteristics of the four thematic classes

3. In an open syllable, the stem-final a lengthens before any ending beginning with m or v; thus, there is no lengthening before ‑m in the 1st person singular imperfect active.


Characteristics of the four thematic classes2
Characteristics of the four thematic classes

4. The stem-final a is dropped before all endings beginning with e.

5. The 2nd person singular imperative active is simply the stem.


Characteristics of the four thematic classes3
Characteristics of the four thematic classes

6. The optative suffix is ‑ã- before consonants and ‑ãy- before vowels. By sandhi,

a- + -ã-e ;

a- + -ãy- ey .


Stem formation in the thematic classes
Stem formation in the thematic classes

1st class (bhå- class)

stem = root + a-

guõa, if possible


Stem formation in the thematic classes1
Stem formation in the thematic classes

6th class (tud‑ class)

stem = root + a-

zero grade


Stem formation in the thematic classes2
Stem formation in the thematic classes

4th class (div‑ class)

stem = root + ya-

unchanged












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