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Chapter 6. Groups and Organizations. Chapter Outline. Types of Groups Social Influence in Groups Formal Organizations and Bureaucracies Diversity: Race, Gender, and Class in Organizations Functional, Conflict, and Symbolic Interaction: Theoretical Perspectives. Dyad Triad Primary group

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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

Groups and Organizations


Chapter outline
Chapter Outline

  • Types of Groups

  • Social Influence in Groups

  • Formal Organizations and Bureaucracies

  • Diversity: Race, Gender, and Class in Organizations

  • Functional, Conflict, and Symbolic Interaction: Theoretical Perspectives


Types of groups

Dyad

Triad

Primary group

Secondary group

Reference group

In-group

Out-group

 Types of Groups


Dyads and triads
Dyads and Triads

  • DyadGroup consisting of two people

  • TriadGroup consisting of three people.

  • Triadic segregationThe tendency for triads to segregate into a coalition of the dyad against the isolate.


Primary and secondary groups
Primary and Secondary Groups

  • Primary groupsGroups consisting of intimate, face-to-face interaction and relatively long-lasting relationships.

  • Secondary groupsGroups with large membership, less intimate, and less long lasting.


Polling questions
Polling Questions

  • Which type of group is the most important to you?

    A. Primary group

    B. Secondary group


Attribution errors
Attribution errors

  • We perceive people in our out-groups negatively regardless of their actual characteristics.

  • Include misperceptions between racial groups and between men and women.


Polling question
Polling Question

  • The Boys Scouts of American discriminates against homosexuals in general.

    A.) Strongly agree

    B.) Agree somewhat

    C.) Unsure

    D.) Disagree somewhat

    E.) Strongly disagree


Social networks
Social Networks

  • A set of links between individuals or other social units, such as bureaucratic organizations or even entire nations.

  • Numerous research studies indicate that people get jobs via their personal networks more often than through formal job listings, want ads, or placement agencies.


Small world research project
Small World Research Project

  • 300 “senders” were tasked with getting a document to a complete stranger.

  • 1/3 of the documents arrived with an average of 6.2 contacts.


Asch conformity experiment
Asch Conformity Experiment

  • 1/3 to 1/2 of the subjects make a judgment contrary to objective fact and in conformity with the group. 


Milgram obedience studies
Milgram Obedience Studies

  • 65% of subjects administered what they thought was lethal voltage on the shock machine.

  • Milgram described the dilemma as a conflict between conscience and authority.


The iraqi prisoners at abu graib research predicts reality
The Iraqi Prisoners at Abu Graib: Research Predicts Reality?

  • In the spring of 2004, it was revealed that American soldiers who were military police guards at Abu Graib prison in Iraq engaged in severe torture of Iraqi prisoners of war.

  • The guards claimed they were following orders directly given or indirectly assumed.

  • Milgram studies suggest that many ordinary soldiers would engage torture if they believed they were under orders to do so, or that they would not be punished.


Groupthink 4 aspects
Groupthink:4 Aspects

  • Illusion of invulnerability.

  • Falsely negative impression of those who are antagonists to the group’s plans.

  • Discouragement of dissenting opinion.

  • Illusion of unanimity.


Historic group think decisions
Historic Group Think Decisions

  • The Naval High Command decided in 1941 not to prepare for the attack on Pearl Harbor by Japan.

  • President Kennedy’s attempt to overthrow Cuba by launching the invasion at the Bay of Pigs in 1962.


Historic group think decisions1
Historic Group Think Decisions

  • President Johnson’s decision in 1967 to increase the number of U.S. troops in Vietnam.

  • Decision by President Nixon’s advisers in 1972 to break into Democratic Party headquarters at the Watergate apartment complex.


Risky shift
Risky Shift

  • Groups weigh risk differently than individuals.

  • Most but not all group discussion leads to greater risk-taking.

  • As groups get larger, trends in risk-taking are amplified.


Formal organizations
Formal Organizations

  • Develop cultures and routine practices.

  • People conform to expected patterns of behavior.

  • Can be tools for innovation, depending on the organization’s values and purpose.


Types of organizations
Types of Organizations.

  • Normative (service, charitable organizations)

  • Coercive (prisons)

  • Utilitarian (corporations)


Weber characteristics of bureaucracy
Weber: Characteristics of Bureaucracy

  • Division of labor and specialization

  • Hierarchy of authority

  • Rules and regulations

  • Impersonal relationships

  • Career ladders

  • Efficiency


Bureaucracy s other face
Bureaucracy’s Other Face

  • Informal structures ignore, change, or bypass formal structure and rules.

  • Subcultures develop when people try to humanize an impersonal organization.

  • The informal culture can become exclusionary.


Problems of bureaucracies
Problems of Bureaucracies

  • Risky shift

  • Groupthink

  • Ritualism

  • Alienation


Mcdonaldization of society
McDonaldization of Society

  • Efficiency - things move from start to finish in a streamlined path.

  • Calculability - emphasis on quantitative aspects of products sold.


The mcdonaldization of society
The McDonaldization of Society

  • Predictability - products are the same no matter when or where they are purchased.

  • Control - behavior is reduced to a series of machinelike actions.



Diversity in organizations
Diversity in Organizations

  • Organizations perpetuate inequality of race-ethnicity, gender and social class.

  • Minorities are less likely to get promoted and more likely to get fired.






1. What did Simmel called the tendency for triads to segregate into a pair and an isolate?

a. tertius gaudens

b. dyadic segregation

c. triadic segregation

d. coalition of the isolate


Answer c
Answer: c segregate into a pair and an isolate?

  • Simmel called the tendency for triads to segregate into a pair and an isolate a triadic segregation.


2. A set of links between individuals or between other social units is defined as a:

a. secondary groups

b. social network

c. primary group

d. social category


Answer b
Answer: b social units is defined as a:

  • A set of links between individuals or between other social units is defined as a social network.


3. In a classic study known as the Asch Conformity Experiment, Solomon Asch showed that:

a. most people conform when an authority figure demands obedience

b. most people would proclaim their willingness to aid a stranger in need

c. significant gender difference is evident in patterns of conformity

d. simple facts cannot withstand the distorting pressure of group influence


Answer d
Answer: d Experiment, Solomon Asch showed that:

  • In a classic study known as the Asch Conformity Experiment, Solomon Asch showed that simple facts cannot withstand the distorting pressure of group influence.


4. Which of the following statements is true regarding the Milgram obedience studies?

a. When the learner complained of a heartcondition, less than 10 percent of the subjects delivered the maximum shock level

b. Class background and racial/ethnicdifferences had no effect on compliancerate.

c. In the first experiment, only 20 percent ofthe subjects went all the way to 450 volts

d. Women were found to be more humanethan men.


Answer b1
Answer: b Milgram obedience studies?

  • The statement, class background and racial/ethnic differences had no effect on compliance rates, is true regarding the Milgram obedience studies.


5. A married couple is an example of a dyad. Milgram obedience studies?

a. True

b. False


Answer true
Answer: True Milgram obedience studies?

  • A married couple is an example of a dyad.


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