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What differences do you notice between these windows…. a nd these windows?. Literature

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The Quran (Koran) was a major contribution to Islamic literature and is the standard for all Arabic literature and poetry. Fictional adventure stories also played an important part in Islamic literature. The most famous is A Thousand and One Nights (also called The Arabian Nights). It’s tales include Aladdin and his magic lamp.


Islamic architecture is a blend of Arab, Turkish, and Persian traditions. Mosques were the most important buildings of the Arab World. Mosques featured minarets, domes, and walls decorated with gold and mosaics (small tiles). One of the finest examples of Islamic architecture is the Alhambra Palace in Granada, Spain.

Blue Mosque, Istanbul


Islamic Scholars made contributions to mathematics and the natural sciences. Al-Khwarizmi, a Muslim mathematician, wrote a book about al-jabr, the Arabic word for algebra.



The Muslims made major advances in astronomy through scientific observation. They perfected the astrolabe, an instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing positions of stars and planets. The astrolabe helped later explorers like Christopher Columbus.


Islamic doctors developed advanced techniques like surgery with anesthesia. The most famous Muslim doctor, al-Razi studied infectious diseases. Cordoba, Spain became known for its medical care, and patients came from all over the world to Cordoba for treatment.


The Prophet Mohammad and the Quran forbid any portrayals of himself or other living things, especially in mosques. Therefore, Islamic art does not generally include representations of people or animals. Instead, Islamic art focuses on calligraphy (the art of beautiful handwriting), geometric shapes, and tessellations.


Geometric shapes


Alhambra Palace, Granada, Spain