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Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility. 1. Why does ethylene glycol (shown to the right) dissolve so well in water?. 2. Why does this solution work as an excellent anti-freeze?. 3. Would the same effect occur with benzene, C 6 H 6 ?. Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility. Solutions

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unit 6 solutions and solubility

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility

1. Why does ethylene glycol (shown to the right) dissolve so well in water?

2. Why does this solution work as an excellent anti-freeze?

3. Would the same effect occur with benzene, C6H6?

unit 6 solutions and solubility1
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Solutions
    • Definition: homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances in a single phase
    • Types and composition
  • Unsaturated, saturated and supersaturated
    • You add a spoonful of table salt to a gallon jug of water
    • You add 50 g of sodium acetate to 30 mL of water and most of the sodium acetate sits at the bottom of the beaker
    • You heat up the previous solution to dissolve all the sodium acetate
    • You then cool that solution down and the solution remains intact

http://Supersaturated Solution

unit 6 solutions and solubility2
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Solubility Curves
    • Show the amount of solute required to produce a saturated solution over a range of temperatures.
    • Usually the curve specifies 100 g of water as the solvent.
slide4

1. What is the solubility of potassium nitrate in 100 grams of water at 60oC?

ANSWER:

106 grams of KNO3 will dissolve

slide5

7. At what temperature do potassium nitrate and sodium chloride have the same solubility?

ANSWER:

At 24oC these two have the same solubility

slide7

100 grams of water are saturated with potassium nitrate at 0oC. If the solution is heated to 65oC, how much more can be dissolved?

unit 6 solutions and solubility3
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
unit 6 solutions and solubility4
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids
unit 6 solutions and solubility5
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

+

H

H

-

+

-

+

O

+

-

+

-

-

-

+

-

+

unit 6 solutions and solubility6
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

+

H

H

-

+

-

+

O

+

-

+

-

-

-

+

-

+

unit 6 solutions and solubility7
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

+

H

H

-

+

-

+

O

+

-

+

-

-

-

+

-

+

unit 6 solutions and solubility8
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

+

H

H

-

+

-

+

O

+

-

+

-

-

-

+

-

+

unit 6 solutions and solubility9
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

-

+

-

+

+

H

H

O

+

-

+

-

-

-

+

-

+

unit 6 solutions and solubility10
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

-

+

-

+

+

H

H

+

-

+

-

O

-

+

-

+

-

unit 6 solutions and solubility11
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

-

+

-

+

+

H

H

-

+

-

+

O

-

+

-

+

-

unit 6 solutions and solubility12
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

-

+

-

+

+

H

H

-

O

+

-

+

-

-

+

-

+

unit 6 solutions and solubility13
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

+

H

H

-

-

+

-

+

O

+

-

+

-

-

+

-

+

unit 6 solutions and solubility14
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

Chunks of solute

H

H

-

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

unit 6 solutions and solubility15

+

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

unit 6 solutions and solubility16

+

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

slide22

+

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

unit 6 solutions and solubility17

+

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

unit 6 solutions and solubility18

+

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

unit 6 solutions and solubility19

+

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

slide26

+

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

+

-

+

-

unit 6 solutions and solubility20

+

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

+

-

+

-

unit 6 solutions and solubility21

+

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

Over time, this whole chunk gets taken apart and dissolved

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

+

-

+

-

unit 6 solutions and solubility22
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Liquids dissolving in liquids
    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”
    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)
    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.
  • Solids dissolving in liquids
    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

Chunks of solute

H

H

-

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

YouTube - Dissolução do cloreto de sódio

-

+

-

+

unit 6 solutions and solubility23
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • Units of Concentration
    • Different concentration units are useful for different things in chemistry so you must be familiar with all of them.
  • Molarity
    • Useful for stoichiometry
  • Molality
    • Useful for colligative property calculations
  • Mole fraction
  • Weight percent
    • Consumer products
  • Parts per million/billion/etc
    • Naturally occurring solutions that are typically very dilute
unit 6 solutions and solubility24
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility
  • To make some of your own anti-freeze, you add 1.2 kg of ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, to 4.0 kg of water.
    • What are the mole fraction, molality and weight percent of ethylene glycol in solution?

MolalityWeight %Mole fraction

NaI 0.35

C2H5OH 2.5

C12H22O11 0.35

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