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Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility. 1. Why does ethylene glycol (shown to the right) dissolve so well in water?. 2. Why does this solution work as an excellent anti-freeze?. 3. Would the same effect occur with benzene, C 6 H 6 ?. Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility. Solutions

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Unit 6 solutions and solubility

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility

1. Why does ethylene glycol (shown to the right) dissolve so well in water?

2. Why does this solution work as an excellent anti-freeze?

3. Would the same effect occur with benzene, C6H6?


Unit 6 solutions and solubility1
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility

  • Solutions

    • Definition: homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances in a single phase

    • Types and composition

  • Unsaturated, saturated and supersaturated

    • You add a spoonful of table salt to a gallon jug of water

    • You add 50 g of sodium acetate to 30 mL of water and most of the sodium acetate sits at the bottom of the beaker

    • You heat up the previous solution to dissolve all the sodium acetate

    • You then cool that solution down and the solution remains intact

http://Supersaturated Solution


Unit 6 solutions and solubility2
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility

  • Solubility Curves

    • Show the amount of solute required to produce a saturated solution over a range of temperatures.

    • Usually the curve specifies 100 g of water as the solvent.


1. What is the solubility of potassium nitrate in 100 grams of water at 60oC?

ANSWER:

106 grams of KNO3 will dissolve


7. At what temperature do potassium nitrate and sodium chloride have the same solubility?

ANSWER:

At 24oC these two have the same solubility



100 grams of water are saturated with potassium nitrate at 0 water at 50oC. If the solution is heated to 65oC, how much more can be dissolved?


Unit 6 solutions and solubility3
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility water at 50

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.


Unit 6 solutions and solubility4
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility water at 50

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids


Unit 6 solutions and solubility5
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility water at 50

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

+

H

H

-

+

-

+

O

+

-

+

-

-

-

+

-

+


Unit 6 solutions and solubility6
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility water at 50

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

+

H

H

-

+

-

+

O

+

-

+

-

-

-

+

-

+


Unit 6 solutions and solubility7
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility water at 50

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

+

H

H

-

+

-

+

O

+

-

+

-

-

-

+

-

+


Unit 6 solutions and solubility8
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility water at 50

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

+

H

H

-

+

-

+

O

+

-

+

-

-

-

+

-

+


Unit 6 solutions and solubility9
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility water at 50

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

-

+

-

+

+

H

H

O

+

-

+

-

-

-

+

-

+


Unit 6 solutions and solubility10
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility water at 50

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

-

+

-

+

+

H

H

+

-

+

-

O

-

+

-

+

-


Unit 6 solutions and solubility11
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility water at 50

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

-

+

-

+

+

H

H

-

+

-

+

O

-

+

-

+

-


Unit 6 solutions and solubility12
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility water at 50

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

-

+

-

+

+

H

H

-

O

+

-

+

-

-

+

-

+


Unit 6 solutions and solubility13
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility water at 50

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

Chunks of solute

+

H

H

-

-

+

-

+

O

+

-

+

-

-

+

-

+


Unit 6 solutions and solubility14
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility water at 50

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

Chunks of solute

H

H

-

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+


Unit 6 solutions and solubility15

+ water at 50

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+


Unit 6 solutions and solubility16

+ water at 50

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+


+ water at 50

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+


Unit 6 solutions and solubility17

+ water at 50

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+


Unit 6 solutions and solubility18

+ water at 50

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+


Unit 6 solutions and solubility19

+ water at 50

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+


+ water at 50

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

+

-

+

-


Unit 6 solutions and solubility20

+ water at 50

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

+

-

+

-


Unit 6 solutions and solubility21

+ water at 50

H

H

O

-

Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

H

H

-

Chunks of solute

O

Over time, this whole chunk gets taken apart and dissolved

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

+

-

+

-


Unit 6 solutions and solubility22
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility water at 50

  • Liquids dissolving in liquids

    • Miscible, immiscible, “Like dissolves like”

    • For liquids to mix, some IM force must be able to form between the two substances!!! (dipole-dipole, H-bonds, dipole-induced dipole, London dispersion)

    • Predict what will happen when ethanol (C2H5OH), water and octane (C8H18) are mixed.

  • Solids dissolving in liquids

    • Molecular solids, ionic solidsand network solids

+

Chunks of solute

H

H

-

O

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

YouTube - Dissolução do cloreto de sódio

-

+

-

+


Unit 6 solutions and solubility23
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility water at 50

  • Units of Concentration

    • Different concentration units are useful for different things in chemistry so you must be familiar with all of them.

  • Molarity

    • Useful for stoichiometry

  • Molality

    • Useful for colligative property calculations

  • Mole fraction

  • Weight percent

    • Consumer products

  • Parts per million/billion/etc

    • Naturally occurring solutions that are typically very dilute


Unit 6 solutions and solubility24
Unit 6: Solutions and Solubility water at 50

  • To make some of your own anti-freeze, you add 1.2 kg of ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, to 4.0 kg of water.

    • What are the mole fraction, molality and weight percent of ethylene glycol in solution?

MolalityWeight %Mole fraction

NaI 0.35

C2H5OH 2.5

C12H22O11 0.35


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