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Industrial Revolution. What you need to know. Eli Whitney – 2 major inventions How Industrial Revolution changed life NE shift to manufacturing How cotton gin changed south American Plan Canals & roads 2 nd Bank of the US Era of Good Feeling. The Industrial Revolution.

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What you need to know
What you need to know

  • Eli Whitney – 2 major inventions

  • How Industrial Revolution changed life

  • NE shift to manufacturing

  • How cotton gin changed south

  • American Plan

  • Canals & roads

  • 2nd Bank of the US

  • Era of Good Feeling


The industrial revolution
The Industrial Revolution

  • Period of change in history when:

    • Machines replaced hand tools for manufacturing

    • Factories grew in size & efficiency

    • Society began move from rural to urban


Interchangeable parts
Interchangeable Parts

  • Invented by Eli Whitney

  • Allow for consistency

    • Goods manufactured exactly alike

  • Factories could manufacture more

    • Quicker & easier to build


Interchangeable parts1
Interchangeable Parts

  • Replace part, not entire product

  • People accumulate wealth

    • Don’t have to throw things away; can fix them easily


The factory system
The Factory System

  • Power-driven machines

    • Early – water & steam power

    • Later – electricity

  • Division of labor

    • People do simple tasks quickly

    • Assembly line


The factory system1
The Factory System

  • Started in British textile industry in Manchester

  • Factories grow, people move from farms to cities to find jobs


America industrializes
America industrializes

  • Embargo of 1807 / War of 1812

    • Both stopped international trade

    • US couldn’t buy foreign goods

    • Changed from exporting raw materials to manufacturing


Northeastern economy
Northeastern Economy

  • Mostly shipping & importing

  • Badly hit by embargo & war

  • 1st factories in US were in NE

    • British-style textile mills


Northeastern economy1
Northeastern Economy

  • Agriculture was not as important to NE economy

  • Couldn’t grow cash crops

    • Mostly subsistence farmers

  • No demand for slaves

    • By 1804 most NE states abolished


Northeastern economy2
Northeastern Economy

  • Many moved to NE cities for work

  • Invested big $ in factories

    • Investing $ in agriculture was a waste of time


Northwestern economy
Northwestern Economy

  • Land better for farming

  • Grew a couple of cash crops or livestock plus food for family

    • Corn, wheat, cattle


Northwestern economy1
Northwestern Economy

  • Sold crops in city markets to non-farmers

  • No need for slaves

    • Didn’t require much labor

    • No huge profits


Southern economy
Southern Economy

  • Farmers in 1700s grew mostly long-staple cotton

    • Expensive & difficult to grow

      • Only grows along warm coastline

    • Easy to “clean” – remove seed

    • Expensive selling price – luxury item



Southern economy1
Southern Economy

  • Few grew short-staple cotton

    • Cheap & easy to grow

      • Grows anywhere it’s warm

    • Hard to clean – fibers are tighter

      • Too expensive to process by hand

    • Not as fancy – cheaper price



The cotton gin
The Cotton Gin

  • Eli Whitney invented – 1793

    • Easier to cultivate short-staple

    • Feasible to grow all over south

    • Cheaper product – must grow lots to make money


Southern economy2
Southern Economy

  • Poor farmers could buy cheap land in new western states

  • Set up new plantations for cheap short-staple cotton

  • More and more slaves needed


Southern economy3
Southern Economy

  • King Cotton

    • S becomes dependent on cotton

    • Rely on exporting to NE & Britain

    • No need to industrialize


American system
American System

  • 3-pt plan for US to grow & unify

    • Transportation improvements

      • Roads, canals, harbors

    • Protective tariff

      • Help US businesses compete

    • Bring back Bank of the US

      • Stabilize & nationalize economy


Henry clay
Henry Clay

  • Speaker of the House from KY

  • Wanted help for new states to develop


American system1
American System

  • Better transportation helps goods get from S/W to NE

  • Makes everyone better off

  • Economic freedom from Europe


Transportation improvements
Transportation improvements

  • Roads

    • Built by states all over

    • Paid for mostly by tolls

    • National Road – from MD to IL


Transportation improvements1
Transportation improvements

  • Canals

    • Erie Canal connected Great Lakes to Atlantic Ocean

    • Took 8 years to build

    • Made New York City most important port in US


Tariff of 1816
Tariff of 1816

  • After War ended Britain flooded US market with cheap goods

    • US companies couldn’t compete

  • RaisedBritish prices – equalized to US prices


Tariff of 18161
Tariff of 1816

  • Money made from tariff paid for internal improvements

  • S & W weren’t happy

    • Weren’t manufacturing anyway

    • Raisedprices for US exports (cotton)


2nd bank of the us
2nd Bank of the US

  • Supported by people nationwide

  • Common currency – business easier across regions


Era of good feeling
“Era of Good Feeling”

  • James Monroe elected President in 1816

  • Most Americans happy with gov


What you need to know1
What you need to know

  • Eli Whitney – 2 major inventions

  • How Industrial Revolution changed life

  • NE shift to manufacturing

  • How cotton gin changed south

  • American Plan

  • Canals & roads

  • 2nd Bank of the US

  • Era of Good Feeling


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