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9-1. Transforming the Roman World. 1. What replaced the Western Roman empire by 500. A number of states fuled by German Kings. 2. Who were the Anglo-Saxons?. The Angles and the Saxons were Germanic tribes from Denmark and Northern Germany who settled in Britain in the 5th Century.

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9-1

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9-1

Transforming the Roman World


1. What replaced the Western Roman empire by 500

  • A number of states fuled by German Kings


2. Who were the Anglo-Saxons?

  • The Angles and the Saxons were Germanic tribes from Denmark and Northern Germany who settled in Britain in the 5th Century


3. Which of the German states on the European continent proved long lasting?

  • The Kingdom of the Franks


4. What political advantage did Clovis gain when he converted to Christianity?

  • His conversion gave him the support of the Catholic Church


5. Describe the crucial social bond among the Germanic peoples

  • Extended families held towns together


6. What was wergild?

  • The amount paid by a wrongdoer to the family of the person who was wronged


7. Explain the importance of a man known as the pope

  • Bishop of Rome and the leader of the Catholic Church


8. In what endeavor was Pope Gregory I especially active?

  • Converting Germanic people to Christianity


9. What good works did the Christian monks in the new European civilization perform?

  • Provided schools, hospitals, and hospitality for travelers


10. What did the coronation of Charlemagne symbolize?

  • The coming together of the Roman, Christian , and Germanic worlds to make European civilization


11. Why do we have manuscripts of Ancient Roman literary works today?

  • They were copied by Carolingian monks


Wergild

  • The amount of money paid to a family to make up for a wrongdoing


Ordeal

  • A physical trial to determine guilt or innocence


Bishopric

  • A diocese or group of churches together


Pope

  • The bishop of Rome and head of the Catholic Church


Monk

  • A man who dedicates his life to God


Monasticism

  • The practice of being a monk


Missionary

  • Someone who goes out to spread a religious message


Nun

  • A woman who dedicates her life to God


Abbess

  • Head nun at a convent


Visigoth

  • Germanic tribe that conquered Spain


Ostrogoth

  • Germanic tribe that conquered Italy in the 5th century


Anglo-Saxon

  • Germanic tribe that settled in Great Britain


Clovis

  • Converted to Christianity and started the first Frankish Kingdom


Gregory I

  • Strengthened the papacy in the 6th century


Saint Benedict

  • Started the first monastery in the 6th century


Mayor of the Palace

  • Chief officer in the King’s household


Pepin

  • Unified the Frankish Kingdom


Charlemagne

  • Ruled a vast Frankish kingdom called the Carolingian Empire, crowned by the Pope as the Holy Roman Emperor


Scriptoria

  • Writing rooms in monasteries where monks copied books


9-4

The Byzantine Empire and the Crusades


  • I. Justinian became Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire in 527

    • A. Justinian’s most important contribution was his codification of Roman Law

    • B. This simplified code was “The body of civil law,” the basis of Imperial law


  • II. The most serious challenge to the Eastern Roman Empire was the rise of Islam

    • A. Islamic forces defeated an army of the Eastern Empire at Yarmuk in 636

    • B. By the beginning of the eighth century, the Eastern Empire was much smaller


  • 1. Historians call this smaller empire the Byzantine Empire

  • 2. The Christian church of this Empire was known as the Eastern Orthodox Church

  • 3. Because the emperor appointed the head of the Orthodox church, known as the patriarch, he exercised control over church and state


  • III. The Empire recovered and expanded under emperors known as the Macedonians

    • A. The Byzantine Empire was troubled by a growing split in its church

    • B. In 1054, Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael Celularius of the Byzantine Church formally excommunicated each other


  • C. this began the schism, or separation, between the two branches of Christianity that has not been healed to this day

  • * The main cause of this schism was the Patriarch’s refusal to accept the Pope in Rome as his authority


  • IV. From the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries, European Christians conducted military expeditions known as the crusades

    • A. Warriors of Western Europe formed the first crusading armies


  • B. In 1187, Jerusalem fell to Muslim forces under Saladin

  • C. Richard the Lionhearted negotiated a settlement whereby Christian pilgrims had free access to Jerusalem

  • D. The first widespread attacks on Jews bean in the context of the crusades


Patriarch

  • Head of the Eastern Orthodox Church


Schism

  • Separation between two branches of Christianity


Crusades

  • Expeditions to regain the holy lands from the Muslims


Infidel

  • A non-believer, Muslim


Justinian

  • Emperor of the Byzantine Empire


Body of Civil Law

  • Justinian’s laws for the Byzantine Empire (simplified from Roman Law)


Byzantine Empire

  • The Eastern half of the former Roman Empire


Macedonians

  • Byzantine Emperors from 867-1081


Seljuk Turks

  • Defeated the Byzantine Empire in East Asia


Saint Bernard of Clairvaux

  • Called for the 2nd Crusade


Saladin

  • Great Muslim military leader who took Jerusalem from the Christians


Innocent III

  • Called for the 4th Crusade


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