Section 2

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Technology and Communication. Today's Technology EnvironmentIn what ways do we share information today that are enabled by technology?What are the implications of this information sharing?. Technology and Communication. FlextimeTele-commutingSurvey says?Efficient/Cost savingDangerous for ne

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Section 2

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1. Section 2 Environmental Context: Information Technology and Globalization

2. Technology and Communication Today’s Technology Environment In what ways do we share information today that are enabled by technology? What are the implications of this information sharing?

3. Technology and Communication Flextime Tele-commuting Survey says… Efficient/Cost saving Dangerous for new employees Compressed Work Week E-Enabled Business Models Business to Business (B2B) Business to Consumer (B2C)

4. Globalization Besides information technology, the other major environmental context impacting organizational behavior is globalization. Today, well-known U.S.-based multinational corporations have more than half their assets overseas. With trends toward similar clothes, entertainment, material possessions, and recognition that English is the international business language, people around the world still think and behave in different ways. The starting point of how the globalization environment affects and is affected by organizational behavior is culture.

5. Looking Across Cultures Stereotypes vs. Archetypes Culture stories that stuck out?

6. What is Culture? Culture is a social construct “Culture makes the unnatural seem natural” Culture is man made & learned Culture = Problem solving “culture is the way a group of people solves problems and reconciles dilemmas.” - Dr. Fons Trompenaars Culture is not static

7. What is Culture?

8. Exercise- 10 minutes Take a piece of paper and a pen/pencil and draw “culture”.

9. Layers of Culture Outer Layer: Explicit Products Observable reality Symbols of deeper layers Middle Layer: Norms & Values Core: assumptions about existence Problem-solving in relation to environment

10. Dilemmas in Defining Culture Understanding own culture: “THE FISH IS THE LAST TO KNOW IT IS IN WATER.” (Proverb) Hard to see own culture Trying to understand cultures does not give us license to stereotype: Culture is a normal distribution We tend to recognize elements of other cultures that are different than our own, and use our values to determine if good or bad.

11. How do Global Managers use these frameworks? Can never fully understand another culture. Use the framework to: Understand own cultural baggage Integrate and Reconcile Best Practices for international business interactions: “A truly intercultural person is one who is comfortable being uncomfortable.”

12. The Impact of Culture on International Organizational Behavior How do Cultures Vary? How People See Themselves People’s Relationship to Their World Individualism versus Collectivism The Time Dimension Public and Private Space

13. The Impact of Culture on International Organizational Behavior Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Individualism/Collectivism Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Masculinity/Feminity

14. The Impact of Culture on International Organizational Behavior Trompenaars’s Cultural Dimensions Universalism versus Particularism Individualism versus Collectivism Neutral versus Affective Specific versus Diffuse Achievement versus Ascription

15. Universalist What you know Equality Rules and procedures Business oriented Black and white Who you know Favoritism Flexibility People oriented Gray

16. Self Perceptions Bureaucracy is efficient Start on time Predictability Straight to point Bureaucracy is inefficient Late is acceptable Unpredictability Socialization Chris speaksChris speaks

17. Too straight forward Does not care about people Inflexible Chris speaksChris speaks

18. “We” vs. “I”

19. Group Dynamics

20. Negotiating

21. Characteristics of Specific Cultures

22. Characteristics of Diffuse Cultures Indirect, Evasive, tactful and ambiguous Highly situational Life is a whole Losing face

23. The Impact of Culture on International Organizational Behavior

24. The Impact of Culture on International Organizational Behavior

25. The Impact of Culture on International Organizational Behavior

26. Expatriate Home based employee sent to a foreign assignment for an extended period of time. Challenges in turnover Personal Adjustment Perceived Equity with host and home countries Family Adjustment Cultural understanding and training contributes to successful assignment.

27. Caution Are countries synonymous with cultures? Why are they studied that way? What the limitations Sub-cultures (all American’s are alike right?) What are we really trying to get at? Variance- “can geography predict culture?” What can help us? WABA Measure culture

29. Diversity and Ethics

30. Managing Diversity Kohlberg’s levels of thinking Where do managers need to be in terms of “diversity” Understand themselves Understand others Understand the cognitive processes by which others view others Know what to expect when different types of people get together

31. Target for Diversity Discussion Race is one of many diversity issues…and a primary issue that get’s much attention Contact Theory vs. Social Identity Theory Personal experiences- Contact Theory Boeing, Africans, Southern U.S., Europe, South America, Central America, Research in China This is what it’s like being a ________ _______ in this organization. Target for this discussion is to chip away at this issue

32. U.S. Social Experience Theodore Roosevelt 1919- The “Melting Pot” The Borg Today– The “Salad Bowl”

33. U.S. Social Experience Melting Pot Fair and equal treatment is same treatment Do unto others as you would have them do unto you Salad Bowl Fair and equal treatment is equivalent treatment Do unto others as they would want done unto them

34. The Nature of Diversity Reasons for the Emergence of Diversity Specific Characteristics of Diversity Age Gender (>50% women college graduates) Ethnicity Education Other Characteristics of Diversity

35. The Nature of Diversity

36. Legislation Review ADEA Civil Rights Act of 1991 FMLA FLSA ADA Pregnancy EPA Title 7 Exec Order 11246 Sexual Orientation

37. The Nature of Diversity

38. Managing Diversity Developing the Multicultural Organization Exclusionary organization Club organization Compliance organization Affirmative action organization Redefining organization Multicultural organization

39. Managing Diversity Organizational Approaches to Managing Diversity Testing Training Mentoring Work/Family Programs The Role of Empathy Does diversity = performance?....Maybe

40. Managing Diversity

41. Managing Diversity

42. Avey’s Research N = 30,000 Ethnic Congruence in the Supervisor-Subordinate Dyad Salary Salary Growth Level Level Growth Significant vs. Meaningful

43. Leaders are Readers The Smartest Guys in the Room (2004) McLean and Elkind “The tale of Enron is a story of human weakness, of hubris and greed and rampant self-delusion; of ambition run amok; of a grand experiment in the deregulated world; of a business model that didn’t’ work; and of smart people who believed their next gamble could cover up their last disaster—and who couldn’t admit they were wrong”.

44. Ethics and Ethical Behavior in Organizations The Impact of Ethics on “Bottom-Line” Outcomes Sexual Harassment Types Employee Privacy Issues

45. Ethics Folks and Whang (2003) 3- Groups Asked to Defend Unethical Behavior Asked to Apologize for Unethical Behavior Asked to Ignore the Unethical Behavior

46. Can we do better? We Applaud Athletic Perfection! Seek to train/execute a skill to its highest level We Pursue Academic Excellence! Engage in the rigorous pursuit of truth & knowledge (“higher learning”). Yet settle for Moral Mediocrity! Homogenize & diminish ethical virtue to a broad road, where all paths lead to Rome.

47. What Underpins Our Ethics? Much of the existing literature has focused on “event sport tourism” or travel associated with watching sports events, particularly mega or hallmark events. The term hallmark event refers to “major fairs, expositions, cultural, and sporting events of international status which are held on either a regular or one time basis” (Hall, 1989, p. 263). Much of the existing literature has focused on “event sport tourism” or travel associated with watching sports events, particularly mega or hallmark events. The term hallmark event refers to “major fairs, expositions, cultural, and sporting events of international status which are held on either a regular or one time basis” (Hall, 1989, p. 263).

49. Ethics, Religion and Philosophy

50. Ethics, Religion and Philosophy

51. Additional Information Global Mindset in Afghanistan Diversity- Managing Generational Differences

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