ATOC 4720 class20. Clouds and storms 1. Cloud morphology 2. Types of clouds 3. The air-mass thunderstorm. From class-19:. . Thermoelectric effect in ice: T- degree C; V--mV.  Supercooled water in clouds. Class-19:. 3. Lightning and thunder.
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1. Cloud morphology
2. Types of clouds
3. The air-mass thunderstorm
Thermoelectric effect in ice:
T- degree C; V--mV
Supercooled water in clouds
Dielectric breakdown: V>3MV/m (dry) V>1MV/m
Moist with 1mm in radius;
Thunder: Shock waves;
Clouds: Mechanisms of formation
 Convective clouds: local ascent of warm,
conditionally unstable air;
0.1-10km in diameters;
Vertical velocity w: a few m/s;
Liquid water or ice content:
Forced lifting of stable air:
Examples: fog is forced lifted upwards;
cold fronts lift warm air mass
Lifting rates: a few cm/s;
Water: a few tens
Tens of hours
Forced lifting of air by hills or mountains
Uplifting velocity depends on windspeed and direction,
And mountain height. Can be a few m/s;
Water: a few tens
Can be transitory, or can stay for long if winds are
Lee waves can also produce orographic clouds;
Cooling of air below its dew point due to warm air is
Advected to a colder surface.
Meeting of two parcels of air with different temperatures;
both close to be saturated.
Adiabatic expansion and cooling due to a rapid local
Reduction in pressure.
Tornadoes or water spouts.
Strong wind-shear modify cloud shape;
Many types: (International cloud Atlas)