Down syndrome
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Down Syndrome. Julie Lakso May 2009. What is Down Syndrome?. What Causes Down Syndrome?. Maternal Age. 20 year old 40 year old 1 in 20001 in 100 30 year old 45 year old 1 in 9001 in 30 35 year old 49 year old 1 in 3501 in 10. Health Concerns.

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Down Syndrome

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Down syndrome

Down Syndrome

Julie Lakso

May 2009


What is down syndrome

What is Down Syndrome?


What causes down syndrome

What Causes Down Syndrome?


Maternal age

Maternal Age

20 year old40 year old

1 in 20001 in 100

30 year old45 year old

1 in 9001 in 30

35 year old49 year old

1 in 3501 in 10


Health concerns

Health Concerns

  • Congenital heart defects

  • Respiratory Problems

  • Hearing Problems

  • Alzheimer’s

  • Childhood Leukemia

  • Thyroid Problems

  • Ear, Nose and Throat Problems

  • ADHD

  • Autism


Speech and language

Speech and Language


Motor issues

Motor Issues

Children with DS tend to demonstrate

an inability to slow down their actions

and control their forward momentum

when running and jumping.

Children with DS tend to treat a

movement as a series of separate tasks

and movements end up lacking fluency.

DS children take longer to initiate a movement

and their movements are slower

than their peers.


Physical and occupational therapy

Physical and Occupational Therapy

  • Occupational Therapy

  • Self care skills

  • Fine motor skills

  • Gross motor skills

  • Skills related to school

  • Play and leisure skills

  • Physical Therapy

  • Low muscle tone

  • Ligamentous Laxity

  • Decreased strength

  • Short arms and Legs


Therapeutic riding

Therapeutic Riding

“Even the experts can't seem to explain the bond that happens between disabled children and horses. It may be the rhythm of a horse's gait, it may be non-verbal communication, or it may be a miracle.” MV Times


Tips for teachers

Tips for Teachers…

  • When planning, be guided by their

    individual needs and abilities, not the label of Down Syndrome.

  • Small group instruction is more beneficial

  • Model the task and give the student plenty of thinking time.

  • Present only a few stimuli at a time

  • Use concrete objects along with verbal instruction


Tips for teachers1

Tips for Teachers…

  • Ask the student to repeat or rephrase the directions

  • Be flexible with attaining educational goals

  • Provide consistent positive reinforcement immediately after a correct response.

  • Give clear signals

  • Seat student away from doors and

    Windows to avoid distractions.


Neurological progression

Neurological Progression

  • There is an insidious neurological progression in Down Syndrome

    • At birth, a child with Down Syndromes brain appears normal, by the age of 35 their brain looks comparable to that of someone who suffers from Alzheimer's.

      By adulthood, the brain shows

      Signs of reduced volume in the

      Hippocampus, prefrontal cortex

      and cerebellum.


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