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Down Syndrome. Julie Lakso May 2009. What is Down Syndrome?. What Causes Down Syndrome?. Maternal Age. 20 year old 40 year old 1 in 2000 1 in 100 30 year old 45 year old 1 in 900 1 in 30 35 year old 49 year old 1 in 350 1 in 10. Health Concerns.

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Down syndrome

Down Syndrome

Julie Lakso

May 2009




Maternal age
Maternal Age

20 year old 40 year old

1 in 2000 1 in 100

30 year old45 year old

1 in 900 1 in 30

35 year old49 year old

1 in 350 1 in 10


Health concerns
Health Concerns

  • Congenital heart defects

  • Respiratory Problems

  • Hearing Problems

  • Alzheimer’s

  • Childhood Leukemia

  • Thyroid Problems

  • Ear, Nose and Throat Problems

  • ADHD

  • Autism



Motor issues
Motor Issues

Children with DS tend to demonstrate

an inability to slow down their actions

and control their forward momentum

when running and jumping.

Children with DS tend to treat a

movement as a series of separate tasks

and movements end up lacking fluency.

DS children take longer to initiate a movement

and their movements are slower

than their peers.


Physical and occupational therapy
Physical and Occupational Therapy

  • Occupational Therapy

  • Self care skills

  • Fine motor skills

  • Gross motor skills

  • Skills related to school

  • Play and leisure skills

  • Physical Therapy

  • Low muscle tone

  • Ligamentous Laxity

  • Decreased strength

  • Short arms and Legs


Therapeutic riding
Therapeutic Riding

“Even the experts can't seem to explain the bond that happens between disabled children and horses. It may be the rhythm of a horse's gait, it may be non-verbal communication, or it may be a miracle.” MV Times


Tips for teachers
Tips for Teachers…

  • When planning, be guided by their

    individual needs and abilities, not the label of Down Syndrome.

  • Small group instruction is more beneficial

  • Model the task and give the student plenty of thinking time.

  • Present only a few stimuli at a time

  • Use concrete objects along with verbal instruction


Tips for teachers1
Tips for Teachers…

  • Ask the student to repeat or rephrase the directions

  • Be flexible with attaining educational goals

  • Provide consistent positive reinforcement immediately after a correct response.

  • Give clear signals

  • Seat student away from doors and

    Windows to avoid distractions.


Neurological progression
Neurological Progression

  • There is an insidious neurological progression in Down Syndrome

    • At birth, a child with Down Syndromes brain appears normal, by the age of 35 their brain looks comparable to that of someone who suffers from Alzheimer's.

      By adulthood, the brain shows

      Signs of reduced volume in the

      Hippocampus, prefrontal cortex

      and cerebellum.


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