Ecology
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Ecology. What is Ecology?. The scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment. Levels of Organization. Individual organisms

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Ecology

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Ecology

Ecology


What is ecology

What is Ecology?

  • The scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment


Levels of organization

Levels of Organization

  • Individual organisms

  • Populations: groups of individuals that belong to the same species (Species- group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring) and live in the same area

  • Community: Assemblages of different populations that live together in a defined area


Levels of organization continued

Levels of Organization (continued)

  • Ecosystem: Collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with nonliving, or physical, environment

  • Biome: A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities

  • Biosphere: Combined portions of the planet in which all of life exists, including land, water, and air, or atmosphere (8km above surface and 11km below in the oceans)


Energy flow

Energy Flow


Energy flows

Energy Flows

  • Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction

    • Sun Autotrophs Heterotrophs


Sunlight

Sunlight

  • The main energy source for life on Earth


Autotroph

Autotroph

  • Plants, some algae, and certain bacteria

  • Capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food

  • Also called producers because they make their own food


Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

  • Autotrophs use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates


Chemosynthesis

Chemosynthesis

  • Autotrophs (such as bacteria) that use chemical energy instead of sunlight to make carbohydrates


Heterotroph

Heterotroph

  • Animals, fungi, and many bacteria

  • They must rely on other organisms for their energy & food supply

  • Also called consumers


Types of heterotrophs

Types of Heterotrophs

  • Herbivores

    • Eat only plants

    • Cows, deer, & caterpillar

  • Carnivores

    • Eat only animals

    • Snakes, dogs, & owls

  • Omnivores

    • Eat both plants & animals

    • Humans, bears, & crows


Types of heterotrophs1

Types of Heterotrophs

  • Detritivores

    • Eat plant & animal remains & other dead matter known as detritus

    • mites, earthworms, & snails

  • Decomposers

    • Break down organic matter

    • Bacteria and fungi


Classification

Classification

  • Pick up a stack of pictures

  • Sort them into 2 piles

    • Autotrophs

    • Heterotrophs

  • Sort the heterotrophs into 4 piles

    • Herbivores

    • Carnivores

    • Omnivores

    • Decomposers

  • Make a list of what organisms are in each pile


Food chains

Food Chains

  • A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten

  • Must be a straight line

  • Grass Antelope Coyote

Primary Consumer

Secondary Consumer

Producer


Food chain

Food Chain

  • Draw a food chain of which you are a member


Food web

Food Web

  • Network of complex feeding relationships among various organisms

  • Links all food chains in an ecosystem together


Trophic level

Trophic Level

  • 1st trophic level – Producers

  • 2nd trophic level – Primary Consumer

  • 3rd trophic level – Secondary Consumer

  • 4th trophic level – Tertiary Consumer

  • 5th trophic level – Quaternary Consumer


Ecological pyramid

Ecological Pyramid

  • A diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food web or food chain

    • Energy Pyramid

    • Biomass Pyramid

    • Pyramid of Numbers


Energy pyramid

Energy Pyramid

Only about 10% of the energy in each trophic level is transferred to the next higher level

90% of the energy is lost as heat

1%-2nd level Consumer

Heat

10%- 1st level Consumer

100% -Producers


Biomass pyramid

Biomass Pyramid

  • Amount of living matter at each level in grams

  • The greatest biomass is usually at the base of the pyramid

Human 50 grams

Chicken 500 grams

Grain 5000 grams


Pyramid of numbers

Pyramid of Numbers

  • Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level

3rd level consumers

2nd level consumers

1st level consumers

Producers


Pyramid of numbers1

Pyramid of Numbers


What shapes an ecosystem

What Shapes An Ecosystem?


What shapes an ecosystem1

What shapes an ecosystem?

  • Abiotic Factors

    • Physical or nonliving factors

    • Temperature, precipitation, humidity, soil type, sunlight

  • Biotic Factors

    • All living things with which an organism might interact

    • Birds, trees, mushrooms, algae, herons


Niche

Niche

  • Full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses these conditions

  • Includes type of food and how it obtains food, physical conditions it needs, how and when it reproduces, and more


Predation

Predation

  • An interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism

  • Predator

    • Organism that does the killing and eating

  • Prey

    • The food


Predator and prey

Predator and Prey


Symbiosis

Symbiosis

  • Any relationship in which two species live closely together

  • Three types

    • Mutualism

    • Commensalism

    • Parasitism


Mutualism

Mutualism

  • Both species benefit from the relationship

  • + , +

  • Example-Flowers and insects


Commensalism

Commensalism

  • One member benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed

  • + , 0

  • Example- Barnacles and whales


Parasitism

Parasitism

  • One organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it

  • + , -

  • Example- Tapeworms and mammals or fleas and dogs


Parasitism1

Parasitism


Biomes

Biomes


Biomes1

Biomes

  • Tropical Rain Forest

  • Tropical Dry Forest

  • Tropical Savanna

  • Desert

  • Temperate Grassland

  • Northwestern Coniferous Forest

  • Boreal Forest

  • Tundra


Biomes2

Biomes

  • Species vary in their adaptations to different conditions

  • Adaptations-Inherited characteristics that increases an organisms ability to survive and reproduce


Adaptations of plants and animals

Adaptations of Plants and Animals

  • Cactus-Leaves are only spines to reduce water loss and stem stores water

  • Desert rats-kidneys conserve water and extract water from food

  • Rain forest plants have long thin leaves that shed excess water


Population growth

Population Growth


Population growth1

Population Growth

  • Factors that affect population size

    • # of births

    • # of deaths

    • # of individuals that enter/leave the population


Exponential growth

Exponential Growth

  • Abundant space and food and protection from predators and disease

  • Ideal conditions with unlimited resources

  • Individuals produce at a constant rate

Growth of Elephant Population


Exponential growth1

Exponential Growth


Logistic growth

Logistic Growth

  • Resources become less available and the growth slows or stops after a period of exponential growth


Carrying capacity

Carrying capacity

  • Number of individuals of a species that a given environment can support

Carrying capacity


Limiting factor

Limiting Factor

  • A factor that causes population growth to decrease

  • May be density-dependent or density-independent


Density dependent factors

Density Dependent Factors

  • Limiting factor that depends on population size

    • Competition-In crowded populations, organisms compete for food, water, space, sunlight, and other essentials

    • Predation

    • Parasitism

    • Disease


Density independent factors

Density-Independent Factors

  • Affect all populations in similar ways regardless of the population size

    • Unusual weather

    • Natural disasters such as droughts

    • Human disturbances such as damming rivers


Biological magnification

Biological Magnification

  • Concentration of a harmful substance increases in organisms at higher trophic levels in a food chain or food web

  • Top level carnivores are at highest risk


Biological magnification1

Biological Magnification

Fish-eating Birds

Large Fish

Magnification of DDT Concentration

Small Fish

Zooplankton

Producers

Water


Cycles of matter

Cycles of Matter


Biogeochemical cycles

Biogeochemical Cycles

  • Cycles that connect biological, geological, and chemical aspects of the biosphere


Water cycle

Water Cycle

  • Evaporation-liquid to gas

  • Transpiration-evaporation from leaves

  • Condensation-water vapor into clouds

  • Precipitation-Rains, sleets, or hails

  • Runoff-water from stream to ocean

  • Groundwater seepage

  • Roots uptake water


Water cycle1

Water Cycle


Carbon cycle

Carbon Cycle

  • Released to atmosphere

    • Volcanic activity and erosion

    • Respiration

    • Burning of fossil fuels and vegetation

    • Decomposition of organic matter


Carbon cycle1

Carbon Cycle

  • Absorbed

    • Plants take in carbon dioxide

    • Plants eaten by heterotrophs

    • In ocean in calcium carbonate

    • Burial and decomposition of dead organisms & conversion to fossil fuels


Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen Cycle

  • Nitrogen fixation-bacteria in soil and roots of plants called legumes convert nitrogen into ammonia

  • Other bacteria convert ammonia into nitrates & nitrogen

  • Producers (plants) use nitrates and nitrogen to make proteins


Nitrogen cycle continued

Nitrogen cycle (continued)

  • Consumers eat producers and reuse the nitrogen to make their own proteins

  • When the consumers die, decomposers return nitrogen to the soil as ammonia

  • Ammonia is taken up by producers or converted to nitrogen gas by bacteria (called denitrification)


Phosphorus cycle

Phosphorus Cycle

  • Important in DNA and RNA

  • Not in atmosphere but on land

  • Rocks wear down and released

  • Some reaches ocean and used by marine organisms

  • Some stays on land and plants absorb and pass on through food web


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