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OBJECTIVES. In this session we will:. Learn about group work in higher education Examine the typical teamworking process Consider the roles which we can play in teams Explore cultural aspects of teamworking. DEFINITIONS. WHAT IS A TEAM?.

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OBJECTIVES

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Objectives

OBJECTIVES

In this session we will:

  • Learn about group work in higher education

  • Examine the typical teamworking process

  • Consider the roles which we can play in teams

  • Explore cultural aspects of teamworking


Objectives

DEFINITIONS

WHAT IS A TEAM?

A collection of individuals who have regular contact and frequent interaction, mutual influence, common feeling of camaraderie, and who work together to achieve a common set of goals.

Oxford Dictionary (2012)

  • Two or more people

  • Specific performance objective or recognisable goal to be attained

  • Coordination of activity among the members of the team is required for the attainment of the team goal or objective

  • Larson & LaFasto (1989)


Objectives

GROUP WORK IN HIGHER EDUCATION

TYPES OF GROUP WORK

group projects

group posters

group discussions in tutorials

lab groups

group discussions in lectures

reading groups

informal study groups

group presentations

group reports

simulations

‘crit’ groups


Objectives

GROUP WORK IN HIGHER EDUCATION

WHY IS THERE GROUP WORK?

  • Can provide students with cognitive, motivational and social benefits (Biggs 2003)

  • Group work can be used to:

  • Encourage deeper learning (Jacques 1984)

  • Promote student autonomy (Freeman 1995)

  • Develop interpersonal skills (Biggs 2003)

  • Provide exposure to others’ points of view (Mello 1993)

  • Because employers want graduates with

  • teamworking skills (Boud et al. 1999)


Objectives

EFFECTIVE TEAMWORK

Process

EFFECTIVE TEAMWORK

Culture

Roles


Objectives

TUCKMAN’S GROUP DEVELOPMENT MODEL

Forming

Storming

Norming

Performing

Mourning

Bruce Tuckman

Source: Tuckman, B. (1965) “Developmental sequence in small groups”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol.63, No. 6, pp.384-399.


Objectives

TUCKMAN’S STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT

Forming

Storming

Norming

Performing

contracting

conflict

collaboration

celebration


Objectives

GROUP DEVELOPMENT – STUDENTS TODAY

Forming

Storming

Norming

Performing


Objectives

GROUP DEVELOPMENT – A DECADE AGO

Forming

Storming

Norming

Performing


Objectives

EFFECTIVE TEAMWORK

Process

EFFECTIVE TEAMWORK

Culture

Roles


Objectives

RESEARCH CONTEXT

Belbin’s research

Research on effective teams

Contribution of the individual to the team

Key roles for success

People have preferred roles

Situation dependent

All roles are equally important

Source: Belbin, R.M. (2004) Management Teams: why they succeed or fail, Butterworth-Heinemann: Oxford. See also: www.belbin.com


Objectives

BELBIN TEAM ROLES

Shaper

- drive to push things forward

Coordinator

- chairperson

Plant

- creative, imaginative

Resource investigator

- networker

Team worker

- maintains relations,

efficient, good listener

Monitor evaluator

- logical observers, strategic, impartial

Implementer

- practical thinker

Completer finisher

- analytical, meticulous

Specialist

- brings expertise,

skill and discipline


Objectives

PROJECTS AND ROLES

Ideas

Plant

Resource

Investigator

Monitor

Evaluator

Co-ordinator

Optimal

solution

Clear goals,

objectives

Specialist

Shaper

Completer

finisher

Work

Implementer

Team Worker

SUCCESS


Objectives

EFFECTIVE TEAMWORK

Process

EFFECTIVE TEAMWORK

Culture

Roles


Objectives

CULTURAL DIVERSITY

There may be differences in gender, age, ethnic and social backgrounds, educational history, motivations for studying, communication preferences, skills, learning styles ...


Objectives

CULTURAL DIVERSITY

GROUP COMPOSITION

True or False: 73% of Business School students said that they preferred to choose their own groups rather than be randomly allocated.

44% of business students agreed that working in groups has helped them to learn more about different cultures

  • By engaging in culturally diverse groups,

  • students can develop awareness of other cultures

  • helps in considering other people’s viewpoints

  • can perform better academically than in culturally similar groups (Sweeney et al. 2008)

73% agreed that working in a group exposed them to different perspectives about the subject


Objectives

CULTURAL NORMS

Greetings

Forms of address

Touching

Eye contact

Personal space

Time keeping

Emotion

Silence

Body language

Relationships

Communications


Objectives

CHARACTERISTICS OF SUCCESSFUL TEAMS

  • Clear, elevating goal

  • Result-driven structure

  • Competent team members

  • Unified commitment

  • Collaborative climate

  • Based on Larson and LaFasto (1989)

  • Teamwork, Sage: USA.

The essence of teamwork lies in synergy –

the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts


Objectives

CHARACTERISTICS OF INEFFECTIVE TEAMS

  • Talking not listening

  • Missing deadlines

  • Lack of delegation / direction

  • Lack of communication

  • Silent members

  • Dismissive attitudes

  • Argumentative/dominant members

  • Based on Kent University (2012)


Objectives

REFERENCES

Belbin, R.M. (2003) Management Teams: why they succeed or fail, Butterworth-Heinemann: Oxford.

Biggs, J. (2003) Teaching for quality learning at university, SRHE: Buckingham.

Boud, D., Cohen, R. and Sampson, J. (1999) “Peer learning and assessment”, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 413-426.

Freeman, M. (1995) “Peer assessment by groups of group work”, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 289-300.

Jacques, D. (1984) Learning in Groups, Croom Helm: London.

Kent University (2012) Teamworking Skills, [online] Available at: www.kent.ac.uk [Accessed 1 June 2012].

Larson and LaFasto (1989) Teamwork, Sage: USA.

Mello, J. (1993) “Improving individual member accountability in small group settings”, Journal of Management Education, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 253-259.

Sweeney, A., Weaven, S. And Herington, C. (2008) “Multicultural influences on group learning: a qualitative higher education study”, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 119-132.

Tuckman, B. (1965) “Developmental sequence in small groups”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 63, No. 6, pp. 384-399.


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