Chapter 8 chemical reactions of inorganic and organic compounds
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Chapter 8 Chemical Reactions of Inorganic and Organic Compounds. Chemical Reactions. Chemical reactions are processes in which one set of chemicals are converted to a new set of chemicals Chemical reactions are described by chemical equations. Evidence for Chemical Reactions.

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Chapter 8 chemical reactions of inorganic and organic compounds
Chapter 8Chemical Reactions of Inorganic and Organic Compounds


Chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions

  • Chemical reactions are processes in which one set of chemicals are converted to a new set of chemicals

  • Chemical reactions are described by chemical equations.


Evidence for chemical reactions
Evidence for Chemical Reactions

  • A gas is produced.

  • A precipitate is formed.

  • A permanent color change is observed.

  • An energy change occurs.


Chemical equations
Chemical Equations

  • N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g)  2 NH3 (g)

  • must be balanced to satisfy Law of conservation of mass

  • State Designations

    • (g) gas

    • (l) liquid

    • (s) solid

    • (aq) aqueous






  • Hexane(C chloride and hydrogen gas.6H14) burns in oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide and water.

  • Vinegar(acetic acid) reacts with baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) to produce carbon dioxide gas, sodium acetate, and water.

  • Ammonia reacts with oxygen gas to form nitrogen monoxide and water.



Some more examples
Some more examples iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.

  • N2 + H2 NH3

  • Be2C + H2O  Be(OH)2 + CH4

  • HCl + CaCO3 CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

  • C2H6 + O2 CO2 + H2O


Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.


Combination Reaction iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.


Classifying reactions by what atoms do
Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.

  • Combination/Synthesis

  • A + Z  AZ


Decomposition
Decomposition iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.


Classifying reactions by what atoms do1
Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.

  • Decomposition

  • AZ  A + Z


Single replacement
Single Replacement iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.


Classifying reactions by what atoms do2
Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.

  • Single Displacement

    • A + BZ  AZ + B


Predicting Reactions iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.

Single Displacement

(AKA Single Replacement)


Cu agno 3
Cu + AgNO iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.3


Cr nicl 2
Cr + NiCl iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.2


Cr zn no 3 2
Cr + Zn(NO iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.3)2


Zn hcl
Zn + HCl iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.


Fe hcl
Fe + HCl iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.


Double displacement
Double Displacement iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.


Classifying reactions by what atoms do3
Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.

  • Double displacement

    • AX + BZ  AZ + BX

  • Neutralization (special type of double displacement reaction)

    • HX +BOH  BX +H2O


Predicting reactions double displacement
Predicting Reactions iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.Double Displacement


Na 2 s zncl 2
Na iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.2S + ZnCl2

Na2S + ZnCl22 NaCl + ZnS(s)


Mg no 3 2 naoh
Mg(NO iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.3)2 + NaOH 

Mg(NO3)2 + 2 NaOH  Mg(OH)2(s)+ 2 NaNO3


Agno 3 na 2 so 4
AgNO iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.3 + Na2SO4

  • AgNO3 + Na2SO4 NR


K 2 co 3 hcl
K iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.2CO3 + HCl 

K2CO3 + 2 HCl  (H2CO3 + 2 KCl)

H2O + CO2 + 2 KCl


Nh 4 cl koh
NH iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.4Cl + KOH 

NH4Cl + KOH  (NH4OH + KCl) 

NH3 +HOH+ KCl


Hno 3 nac 2 h 3 o 2
HNO iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.3 + NaC2H3O2

HNO3(aq) + NaC2H3O2(aq)

 HC2H3O2(aq) + NaNO3(aq)


Hclo 4 naoh
HClO iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.4 + NaOH 

HClO4 + NaOH  H2O(l) + NaClO4


Functional groups in organic compounds
Functional Groups in Organic Compounds iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.

  • Hydrocarbons

  • Alcohols and Ethers

  • Aldehydes and Ketones

  • Carboxylic acids and Esters

  • Amines and Amides

  • Amino Acids


Hydrocarbons alkanes
Hydrocarbons iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.Alkanes


Hydrocarbons alkenes alkynes and aromatics
Hydrocarbons iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatics


Alcohols and ethers
Alcohols and Ethers iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.

Methanol CH3OH

Ethanol CH3CH2OH

Dimethyl ether CH3OCH3

Diethyl ether CH3CH2OCH2CH3


Aldehydes and ketones
Aldehydes iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride. and Ketones

Methanal

Ethanal

Propanone

Butanone


Carboxylic acids and esters
Carboxylic Acids and Esters iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.

Methanoic acid

Ethanoic acid

Methyl methanoate

Methyl ethanoate


Amines and amides
Amines and Amides iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.

Methyl amine

Ethyl amine

Methanamide

Ethanamide

Propanamide


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