Chapter 8 chemical reactions of inorganic and organic compounds
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Chapter 8 Chemical Reactions of Inorganic and Organic Compounds. Chemical Reactions. Chemical reactions are processes in which one set of chemicals are converted to a new set of chemicals Chemical reactions are described by chemical equations. Evidence for Chemical Reactions.

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Chapter 8 Chemical Reactions of Inorganic and Organic Compounds

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Chapter 8 chemical reactions of inorganic and organic compounds

Chapter 8Chemical Reactions of Inorganic and Organic Compounds


Chemical reactions

Chemical Reactions

  • Chemical reactions are processes in which one set of chemicals are converted to a new set of chemicals

  • Chemical reactions are described by chemical equations.


Evidence for chemical reactions

Evidence for Chemical Reactions

  • A gas is produced.

  • A precipitate is formed.

  • A permanent color change is observed.

  • An energy change occurs.


Chemical equations

Chemical Equations

  • N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g)  2 NH3 (g)

  • must be balanced to satisfy Law of conservation of mass

  • State Designations

    • (g) gas

    • (l) liquid

    • (s) solid

    • (aq) aqueous


Chapter 8 chemical reactions of inorganic and organic compounds

  • Copper(II) oxide reacts with ammonia (NH3) to yield copper, nitrogen gas, and water.

  • Write a balanced equation for this reaction.


Diatomic elements

Diatomic Elements


Chapter 8 chemical reactions of inorganic and organic compounds

  • Lead(II) nitrate reacts with potassium chromate to form lead(II) chromate (yellow ppt.) and potassium nitrate.

  • Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium carbonate to form carbon dioxide, sodium chloride, and water


Chapter 8 chemical reactions of inorganic and organic compounds

  • Zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce zinc chloride and hydrogen gas.

  • Potassium chlorate when heated, decomposes to form potassium chloride and oxygen gas.


Chapter 8 chemical reactions of inorganic and organic compounds

  • Hexane(C6H14) burns in oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide and water.

  • Vinegar(acetic acid) reacts with baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) to produce carbon dioxide gas, sodium acetate, and water.

  • Ammonia reacts with oxygen gas to form nitrogen monoxide and water.


Chapter 8 chemical reactions of inorganic and organic compounds

  • Iron(III) chloride reacts with ammonium hydroxide to form iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride.

  • Barium hydroxide and ammonium chloride react to form ammonia (NH3), water, and barium chloride.


Some more examples

Some more examples

  • N2 + H2 NH3

  • Be2C + H2O  Be(OH)2 + CH4

  • HCl + CaCO3 CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

  • C2H6 + O2 CO2 + H2O


Chapter 8 chemical reactions of inorganic and organic compounds

Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do


Chapter 8 chemical reactions of inorganic and organic compounds

Combination Reaction


Classifying reactions by what atoms do

Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do

  • Combination/Synthesis

  • A + Z  AZ


Decomposition

Decomposition


Classifying reactions by what atoms do1

Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do

  • Decomposition

  • AZ  A + Z


Single replacement

Single Replacement


Classifying reactions by what atoms do2

Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do

  • Single Displacement

    • A + BZ  AZ + B


Chapter 8 chemical reactions of inorganic and organic compounds

Predicting Reactions

Single Displacement

(AKA Single Replacement)


Cu agno 3

Cu + AgNO3


Cr nicl 2

Cr + NiCl2


Cr zn no 3 2

Cr + Zn(NO3)2


Zn hcl

Zn + HCl 


Fe hcl

Fe + HCl 


Double displacement

Double Displacement


Classifying reactions by what atoms do3

Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do

  • Double displacement

    • AX + BZ  AZ + BX

  • Neutralization (special type of double displacement reaction)

    • HX +BOH  BX +H2O


Predicting reactions double displacement

Predicting ReactionsDouble Displacement


Na 2 s zncl 2

Na2S + ZnCl2

Na2S + ZnCl22 NaCl + ZnS(s)


Mg no 3 2 naoh

Mg(NO3)2 + NaOH 

Mg(NO3)2 + 2 NaOH  Mg(OH)2(s)+ 2 NaNO3


Agno 3 na 2 so 4

AgNO3 + Na2SO4

  • AgNO3 + Na2SO4 NR


K 2 co 3 hcl

K2CO3 + HCl 

K2CO3 + 2 HCl  (H2CO3 + 2 KCl)

H2O + CO2 + 2 KCl


Nh 4 cl koh

NH4Cl + KOH 

NH4Cl + KOH  (NH4OH + KCl) 

NH3 +HOH+ KCl


Hno 3 nac 2 h 3 o 2

HNO3 + NaC2H3O2

HNO3(aq) + NaC2H3O2(aq)

 HC2H3O2(aq) + NaNO3(aq)


Hclo 4 naoh

HClO4 + NaOH 

HClO4 + NaOH  H2O(l) + NaClO4


Functional groups in organic compounds

Functional Groups in Organic Compounds

  • Hydrocarbons

  • Alcohols and Ethers

  • Aldehydes and Ketones

  • Carboxylic acids and Esters

  • Amines and Amides

  • Amino Acids


Hydrocarbons alkanes

HydrocarbonsAlkanes


Hydrocarbons alkenes alkynes and aromatics

HydrocarbonsAlkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatics


Alcohols and ethers

Alcohols and Ethers

Methanol CH3OH

Ethanol CH3CH2OH

Dimethyl ether CH3OCH3

Diethyl ether CH3CH2OCH2CH3


Aldehydes and ketones

Aldehydes and Ketones

Methanal

Ethanal

Propanone

Butanone


Carboxylic acids and esters

Carboxylic Acids and Esters

Methanoic acid

Ethanoic acid

Methyl methanoate

Methyl ethanoate


Amines and amides

Amines and Amides

Methyl amine

Ethyl amine

Methanamide

Ethanamide

Propanamide


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