Chapter 13: Elections and Voting
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Chapter 13: Elections and Voting Electing the President. Types of Elections: PRIMARY,GENERAL,INITIATIVE, REFERENDUM, recall plurality. Two stages of the electoral process: Primary Elections and General Elections ( FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ONLY!!)

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Chapter 13: Elections and Voting Electing the President

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Chapter 13 elections and voting electing the president

Chapter 13: Elections and Voting

Electing the President


Types of elections primary general initiative referendum recall plurality

Types of Elections: PRIMARY,GENERAL,INITIATIVE, REFERENDUM, recallplurality

  • Two stages of the electoral process: Primary Elections and General Elections (FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ONLY!!)

  • Initiative and referendum (STATE/LOCAL GOVERNMENT ONLY)

    Primary Elections: voters decide which candidate within a political party will represent the party in the general election (First Step)

  • Closed(only part members can cast a ballot) v. open primaries (independent, party members and opposite party members can cast a ballot)

  • Crossover voting- voting for the opposite party in the open primaries.

  • Runoff Primaries- (tie or no majority of votes) A second primary elections between the two candidates receiving the greatest number of votes in the first primary.


Types of elections

Types of Elections

  • General Elections: voters decide which candidate will actually fill elective public office. (Second Step)

  • Primary elections are contest between candidates within the political party; general elections are contest between the candidate of opposing parties.


Types of elections1

Types of Elections

Each state set the date and time for this election, candidates with the plurality, or more votes than any other candidates wins.

- States in which no candidates receive the plurality a runoff primary is held. Is a second election between two candidates who received the most votes in the primary.

Petition- a person announces his or her candidacy and files petitions that a specified # of voters have signed in order to be placed on the ballot.


Gop primary candidates 2012 http en wikipedia org wiki republican party presidential primaries 2012

Gop primary candidates 2012http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republican_Party_presidential_primaries,_2012


General election 2012

General election 2012


Types of elections2

Types of Elections

  • Initiative: process that allow citizens to propose legislation or state constitutional amendments by submitting them to the electorate for popular vote.

  • Referendum: an election in which the states submits proposed legislation or state constitutional amendments for the voters to approve or vote.

  • Recall: an election in which voters can remove an incumbent from office prior to the next schedule election.


Electing the president the national convention

Electing the President:The National Convention

  • From February to June, the candidates cross the country competing for delegates support.

  • The Convention takes place during the summer.

  • Two conventions: Republican Nat’l Convention and Democrats Nat’l Convention.

  • Each party must have a platform, however, different candidates have their own platform called planks, which divides the candidates.

  • The VP nomination, formally takes place the last day of the convention.

  • This person will serve as VP and as running mate.

  • This person balance the ticket meaning that he or she has a personal, political, and geographical background different from the presidential nominee…… what is the purpose of this???

  • …. Is designed to make the ticket appeal to as many voters as possible.


Presidential elections

Presidential Elections

EX 2012 National Convention

  • Mitt Romney Paul Ryan


2008 gop democratic national convention

2008 GOP & Democratic National convention


Chapter 13 elections and voting electing the president

  • GOP PARTY, MINNESOTA

    DEMOCRATIC, COLORADO


The original system

The Original System

  • Article II, Sec. I established the Electoral College.

  • This provided that each state would select electors (same number as representation in Congress)

  • Meet in their own state and cast votes for two presidential candidates. (Electoral vote)

  • Electors are chosen by the political parties in their states (sometimes elected at the state convention, sometimes chosen by a committee or just appointed).

  • In FL, the governor nominates the presidential electors of each political party. The governor may only nominate those electors recommended by the state executive committee of each respective party.


The original system1

The Original System

  • Article II, Sec. I established the Electoral College.

  • This provided that each state would select electors (same number as representation in Congress)

  • Meet in their own state and cast votes for two presidential candidates. (Electoral vote)

  • Electors are chosen by the political parties in their states (sometimes elected at the state convention, sometimes chosen by a committee or just appointed).

  • In FL, the governor nominates the presidential electors of each political party. The governor may only nominate those electors recommended by the state executive committee of each respective party.


How are votes counted

How are votes counted?

  • Electoral votes from all states are counted in a joint session of Congress.

  • The candidate with the most electoral votes wins the presidency.

  • In case of a tie, or if no one received majority the HR would choose the president or VP. (ex. Thomas Jefferson v. Aaron Burr)

  • 12th Amendment (1804) – requires that electors cast separate ballots for president and vice-president.

  • Also, if not candidate receives a majority of the electoral votes, the HR chooses from the candidates w/ the largest electoral vote. IF not, VP get the vote, then Senate select one.


Chapter 13 elections and voting electing the president

Electoral College:

538 electors:

House (435)/Senate (100) + 3 from District of Columbia (D.C)

  • To be elected President/VP= must win 270 votes


Electoral college system today electoral vote v popular vote

Electoral College System Today:Electoral Vote v. Popular Vote

  • Winner Take All System: the party whose candidate receives the largest popular vote in any state wins all the electoral of that state.

    - EXCEPT Maine/Nebraska

  • The winning candidate is usually announces the same night as the popular vote election. (Tuesday after first Monday in November).

  • The formal election by the Electoral College begins on the Monday following the second Wednesday in December when electors meet in each state to cast their votes.

  • This is sealed and mailed to the President of the Senate for a formal count.

  • On January 6th, both houses meet in the HR to open and count the ballots…. Congress Official declares a winner president.

  • Electors usually vote for the candidate who wins the popular vote.

  • Inauguration takes place on January, 20th.


Presidential inauguration

Presidential Inauguration


2000 presidential elections al gore v george bush

2000 Presidential Elections : Al Gore v. George Bush


Major electoral college issues

Major Electoral College Issues

  • Winner Take All- in all but 2 states (Maine/Nebraska), if a candidate wins the largest # of popular votes, that person receives all the state’s electoral votes.

  • 3rd Party Candidates: Could win enough electoral votes to prevent either major-party candidates from receiving a majority of votes.

  • Election by the House:In case of a tie the HR must decide a presidential election, each state must vote. The person that receives 26 wins


Congressional elections

Congressional Elections

Incumbency Advantage:

  • Staff Support

  • Visibility

  • Scare-off effect- EX. Obama’s Foreign Policy v. Romney

    Why they Lose?

    - Redistricting

  • Scandals

  • Presidential coattails:

    EX. Congressional seat:2008 Obama gained 21 House members and only 8 Senators.

  • Midterm Elections – (EX. Congressional Elections)

    Elections in Congress impact Presidents popularity. EX. President Obama was elected in 2008- 112th & 113thCongress – Majority Republicans.


Factors influencing voters choice

Factors influencing voters choice….

  • How people vote?

  • Party Identification

  • Ideology

  • Income and Education

  • Race and Ethnicity

  • Gender

  • Religions

  • Issues: Retrospective judgment ( based on party last performances)

    Prospective judgment (based on candidates pledges to do about an issue)


Voter turnout

Voter turnout

  • Income and Education

  • Race and Ethnicity

  • Gender

  • Age

  • Civic Engagement- people who attend church and are involved in the community are most likely those who vote.

  • Interest in Politics- How many Americans really know and follow politics???


Why don t americans turn out

Why don’t Americans Turn out?

  • Other commitments- People are BUSY.

  • Difficulty in Registration

  • Difficulty in Absentee Voting

  • Number of Elections

  • Voter Attitudes

  • Weakened Influence of Political Party


How can we improve turnout

How can we Improve turnout?

  • Make election day a holiday

  • Enable Early Voting

  • Permit mail and online voting

  • Make registration easier

  • Modernize the ballot

  • Strengthen Parties


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