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Photodynamic Therapy. Presented by: Amber Burks Dental Hygiene Student Danielle Chelette Dental Hygiene Student. Lamar Institute of Technology. Introduction of Photodynamic Therapy. Photodynamic therapy, also called PDT An anti-cancer therapy Locations PDT is most commonly applied to

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photodynamic therapy

Photodynamic Therapy

Presented by:

Amber Burks

Dental Hygiene Student

Danielle Chelette

Dental Hygiene Student

Lamar Institute of Technology

introduction of photodynamic therapy
Introduction of Photodynamic Therapy
  • Photodynamic therapy, also called PDT
  • An anti-cancer therapy
  • Locations PDT is most commonly applied to
  • Approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
importance of pdt
Importance of PDT
  • Alternative treatment option
  • Our goal/purpose
  • Routine cancer screening
  • We hope PDT become more commonly accepted in the clinical practice
  • “prolong survival in patients with inoperable cancers and significantly improve quality of life”
photodynamic therapy1
Photodynamic Therapy
  • Three components
    • Photosensitizer
    • Light
    • Oxygen
    • Taken separately- non-harmful
    • Combined- cytotoxic effects
process of photodynamic therapy
Process of Photodynamic Therapy
  • PDT is a 2 step process
    • First step/first appointment
      • Administration of the photosensitizer
      • Photosensitizer- Light absorbing compound that initiates a photochemical or photophysical reaction
        • Dye
        • Administered intravenously or topically
        • Several photosensitizers available
        • Time period needed between 1st and 2nd step
          • Reason for time/theories
process of photodynamic therapy cont
Process of Photodynamic Therapy (cont.)
  • Second step/second appointment
    • Light activation
      • Lasers
      • Fluorescent lights
      • Several factors need to be taken into consideration when deciding which light source to use.
        • Size of the lesion
        • Cost
        • Absorption rate
        • Type of cancer
process of photodynamic therapy cont1
Process of Photodynamic Therapy (cont.)
  • Light gives off wavelengths that are absorbed by the photosensitizer
  • 3 light sources with different penetrating abilities
    • Blue light- less penetrating
    • Red light- deeper penetrating ability
    • When the 3 components are combined it creates a non-thermal (cold) reaction
    • Destruction of tumors cells
disadvantages
Disadvantages
  • Specialized equipment and training
  • Only used for localized tumors
  • Dye could unevenly disperse
  • Pain and swelling in affected areas after treatment
  • Side effects ranging from slight-severe
  • May experience lingering photosensitizers in the tissue lasting many days or weeks (discoloration)
advantages
Advantages
  • Minimally invasive treatment
  • Performed in an outpatient clinic
  • Can be used before, during, or after chemotherapy and radiation therapy
  • Can be used where radiation is contraindicated
  • Small effect on connective tissues resulting in minimal scarring
  • Activates immune system and low systemic toxicity
  • High patient tolerance rate
  • Lower morbidity and deformity than traditional treatments
  • Simple, efficient, and economical
successful trial
Successful Trial
  • Foscan
  • 128 patients
    • Advanced incurable head and neck carcinomas
    • 43% out of 128 showed elimination of their tumor
      • 35% had half or greater tumor reduction
      • The patients with complete tumor elimination had a 1 year follow-up
        • 35% continued to be cancer free
clinical uses
Clinical Uses
  • Standard treatment option for:
    • Premalignant esophageal cancer
    • Early - advanced lung cancer
    • Process
    • Intravenous administration- Porfimer (Photophrine)
    • Light source- laser
    • 2 (30 min.) treatments
    • local/general anesthesia
    • Destruction of tumor cells
    • Re-evaluate after 1 month
future research
Future Research
  • Future is promising
  • Full potential has yet to be shown
  • Continuing research
    • New photosensitizers
    • Improved existing photosensitizers
    • Lower photosensitivity
    • Longer light wavelength activation
ad