Photodynamic therapy
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Photodynamic Therapy. Presented by: Amber Burks Dental Hygiene Student Danielle Chelette Dental Hygiene Student. Lamar Institute of Technology. Introduction of Photodynamic Therapy. Photodynamic therapy, also called PDT An anti-cancer therapy Locations PDT is most commonly applied to

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Photodynamic Therapy

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Photodynamic therapy

Photodynamic Therapy

Presented by:

Amber Burks

Dental Hygiene Student

Danielle Chelette

Dental Hygiene Student

Lamar Institute of Technology


Introduction of photodynamic therapy

Introduction of Photodynamic Therapy

  • Photodynamic therapy, also called PDT

  • An anti-cancer therapy

  • Locations PDT is most commonly applied to

  • Approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration


Importance of pdt

Importance of PDT

  • Alternative treatment option

  • Our goal/purpose

  • Routine cancer screening

  • We hope PDT become more commonly accepted in the clinical practice

  • “prolong survival in patients with inoperable cancers and significantly improve quality of life”


Photodynamic therapy1

Photodynamic Therapy

  • Three components

    • Photosensitizer

    • Light

    • Oxygen

    • Taken separately- non-harmful

    • Combined- cytotoxic effects


Process of photodynamic therapy

Process of Photodynamic Therapy

  • PDT is a 2 step process

    • First step/first appointment

      • Administration of the photosensitizer

      • Photosensitizer- Light absorbing compound that initiates a photochemical or photophysical reaction

        • Dye

        • Administered intravenously or topically

        • Several photosensitizers available

        • Time period needed between 1st and 2nd step

          • Reason for time/theories


Process of photodynamic therapy cont

Process of Photodynamic Therapy (cont.)

  • Second step/second appointment

    • Light activation

      • Lasers

      • Fluorescent lights

      • Several factors need to be taken into consideration when deciding which light source to use.

        • Size of the lesion

        • Cost

        • Absorption rate

        • Type of cancer


Process of photodynamic therapy cont1

Process of Photodynamic Therapy (cont.)

  • Light gives off wavelengths that are absorbed by the photosensitizer

  • 3 light sources with different penetrating abilities

    • Blue light- less penetrating

    • Red light- deeper penetrating ability

    • When the 3 components are combined it creates a non-thermal (cold) reaction

    • Destruction of tumors cells


Disadvantages

Disadvantages

  • Specialized equipment and training

  • Only used for localized tumors

  • Dye could unevenly disperse

  • Pain and swelling in affected areas after treatment

  • Side effects ranging from slight-severe

  • May experience lingering photosensitizers in the tissue lasting many days or weeks (discoloration)


Advantages

Advantages

  • Minimally invasive treatment

  • Performed in an outpatient clinic

  • Can be used before, during, or after chemotherapy and radiation therapy

  • Can be used where radiation is contraindicated

  • Small effect on connective tissues resulting in minimal scarring

  • Activates immune system and low systemic toxicity

  • High patient tolerance rate

  • Lower morbidity and deformity than traditional treatments

  • Simple, efficient, and economical


Successful trial

Successful Trial

  • Foscan

  • 128 patients

    • Advanced incurable head and neck carcinomas

    • 43% out of 128 showed elimination of their tumor

      • 35% had half or greater tumor reduction

      • The patients with complete tumor elimination had a 1 year follow-up

        • 35% continued to be cancer free


Clinical uses

Clinical Uses

  • Standard treatment option for:

    • Premalignant esophageal cancer

    • Early - advanced lung cancer

    • Process

    • Intravenous administration- Porfimer (Photophrine)

    • Light source- laser

    • 2 (30 min.) treatments

    • local/general anesthesia

    • Destruction of tumor cells

    • Re-evaluate after 1 month


Ktp laser source of light with fiber optic catheter and light diffuser

KTP Laser (source of light) With Fiber Optic Catheter and Light Diffuser


Pdt at md anderson

PDT at MD Anderson


Future research

Future Research

  • Future is promising

  • Full potential has yet to be shown

  • Continuing research

    • New photosensitizers

    • Improved existing photosensitizers

    • Lower photosensitivity

    • Longer light wavelength activation


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