Headaches and viewing of 3 dimensional 3d movies in theaters
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Headaches and viewing of 3-dimensional (3D) movies in theaters. Jaime Mirowsky , MS New York University School of Medicine Department of Environmental Medicine. Presenter Disclosures Jaime Mirowsky :. The following personal financial relationships with commercial interests

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Headaches and viewing of 3-dimensional (3D) movies in theaters

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Headaches and viewing of 3 dimensional 3d movies in theaters

Headaches and viewing of 3-dimensional (3D) movies in theaters

Jaime Mirowsky, MS

New York University School of Medicine

Department of Environmental Medicine


Presenter disclosures jaime mirowsky

Presenter DisclosuresJaime Mirowsky:

The following personal financial

relationships with commercial interests

relevant to this presentation existed

during the past 12 months:

No relationships to disclose


Introduction

Introduction

  • 3D movies have existed since the 1950s

    • Health effects, such as visual fatigue associated with the viewing of 3D movies have been recognized, but epidemiologic studies have not described the frequency of this effect.

  • Emergence of 3D technology in recent years

    • Theaters, cameras, camcorders, phones, video games, TV.


Introduction1

Introduction

  • 3D movies have existed since the 1950s

    • Health effects, such as visual fatigue associated with the viewing of 3D movies have been recognized, but epidemiologic studies have not described the frequency of this effect.

  • Emergence of 3D technology in recent years

    • Theaters, cameras, camcorders, phones, video games, TV.


How 3d images can cause health effects

How 3D images can cause health effects

  • Blending of 2 images causes unnatural conflict between vergence and accommodation in the eyes

    • Vergence: movement of one’s eyes around vertical axes to focus on an object.

    • Accommodation: focusing on an object

    • Vergence and accommodation go hand in hand in normal vision, but 3D movies upset their usual relationship.

  • Health effects that have been noted include, but are not limited to, headaches, sore eyes, tiredness


How 3d images can cause health effects1

How 3D images can cause health effects

  • Blending of 2 images causes unnatural conflict between vergence and accommodation in the eyes

    • Vergence: movement of one’s eyes around vertical axes to focus on an object.

    • Accommodation: focusing on an object

    • Vergence and accommodation go hand in hand in normal vision, but 3D movies upset their usual relationship.

  • Health effects that have been noted include, but are not limited to, headaches, sore eyes, tiredness


Past studies

Past studies…

  • Increase in blinking frequency in 3D vs. 2D movies, closer distances to screen (Lee 2010)

    • n = 6

  • Headache elevated in 3D vs. 2D images (Kuze 2008)

    • n = 11

  • 3D images with motion increase headaches vs. no motion (Yano 2004)

    • n = 5


Limitations of past studies

Limitations of past studies

  • Low sample numbers (n < 12)

  • Use of red/green glasses

    • Newer technology uses polarized glasses

  • LCD/HDTV screens

  • Length of time much less than movie

  • Used images rather than motion pictures


Objectives

Objectives

  • To determine the frequency of headaches among viewers of 3D as compared to 2D movies in theater settings

  • To evaluate risk factors for adverse health effects of 3D movies and identify potential susceptible populations


Headaches and viewing of 3 dimensional 3d movies in theaters

3D movies and headaches

Group 1:

2D vs. 3D movies

Group 2:

Effect of age

Group 3:

Vision problems

Institutional Review Board – exempt status

Create surveys - SurveyMonkey®

Distribute surveys – friends, colleagues, relatives

n = 66, 38

n = 140

n = 85

Analyze data – Exact methods used to calculate odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals odds using Egret for Windows. Exact logistic regression calculated using SAS 9.3.


Other considerations

Other considerations…

  • Gender

  • Migraine susceptibility

  • Contacts, prescription glasses

  • Sitting location in theater

  • Food/drink consumed, alcohol use


Group 1 2d vs 3d movie viewing

Group 1: 2D vs. 3D movie viewing


Group 1 2d vs 3d movie viewing1

Group 1: 2D vs. 3D movie viewing


Group 2 risk factors for headaches among 140 viewers of 3d movies

Group 2: risk factors for headaches among 140 viewers of 3D movies


Group 2 risk factors for headaches among 140 viewers of 3d movies1

Group 2: risk factors for headaches among 140 viewers of 3D movies


Group 2 cont

Group 2 cont.

Multivariable analysis


Group 3 risk factors for headaches among 85 viewers of 3d movies

Group 3: risk factors for headaches among 85 viewers of 3D movies

* Gender was missing for 1 individual


Group 3 risk factors for headaches among 85 viewers of 3d movies1

Group 3: risk factors for headaches among 85 viewers of 3D movies

* Gender was missing for 1 individual


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Headaches uncommon among 2D viewers vs. 3D viewers (4% vs. 14%, respectively)

  • Other risk factors could include viewers

    • < 40 years-old

    • Prior diagnosis of migraine

    • Eyeglasses + 3D glasses

    • Females

  • 12 – 17% of viewers of 3D movies reported headaches


Limitations

Limitations

  • Surveys not designed to combine results

    • Different age brackets

    • Different questions asked

  • Samples sizes still low

  • Age cutoff at 18 years-old

  • All movies grouped together


Future directions

Future directions

  • More comprehensive study with larger sample sizes

  • Animated vs. live-action movie

  • Technology differences (how projected, type of glasses worn)

  • Seating position

  • Survey administered directly after movie watched

  • Other studies using 3DTV, 3D video games, 3D camera/video cameras


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

  • Dr. Michael Marmor

  • Group 1:

    • Xin Cheng

    • Brittany Garrett

    • Sean Quarry

    • Michael Wajnrajch, MD

  • Group 2:

    • Jieying Jiang

    • Alexandra Munoz

    • June Kim

    • Julie Robinson

    • Eric Saunders

  • Group 3:

    • Colleen Sabella

    • AlyshaUrniasz

    • Joshua Vaughan

    • LitalYinon

    • Enhan Zhang

  • New York University Graduate School of Arts and Science


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