Gwynne lyons toxics science and policy advisor wwf uk
Download
1 / 21

Gwynne Lyons Toxics Science and Policy Advisor WWF UK - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 122 Views
  • Uploaded on

Gwynne Lyons Toxics Science and Policy Advisor WWF UK. Congenital Defects The wildlife/human connection AREHNA seminar - Kos, June 2005. Overview of Talk. Two examples of wildlife warnings. Congenital defects in 4 classes of vertebrate animals: fish; amphibians; reptiles; mammals.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Gwynne Lyons Toxics Science and Policy Advisor WWF UK' - dreama


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Gwynne lyons toxics science and policy advisor wwf uk

Gwynne LyonsToxics Science and Policy Advisor WWF UK

Congenital Defects

The wildlife/human connection

AREHNA seminar - Kos, June 2005


Overview of talk
Overview of Talk

  • Two examples of wildlife warnings.

  • Congenital defects in 4 classes of vertebrate animals: fish; amphibians; reptiles; mammals.

  • Wildlife warnings for the future


Example 1 abortion in sea lions
Example 1 Abortion in Sea Lions

  • 20 % Sea Lions had aborted pups on an island off California

  • DDE responsible for 15%? Of premature baby deaths in USA(Longnecker et al. 2001)

  • Higher DDT in Chinese workers who suffer abortion(Korrick et al. 2001)


Ddt in lab animals
DDT in lab animals

  • DDT has an anti-androgenic action in rodents. AGD > hypospadias > undescended testes(Kelce et al. 1995; Earl Gray et al. 2001)

  • Highlights fetal tissue concs of 10-20 ppm DDE = similar to humans in late 1960s

  • Shows DDT / DDE cause cryptorchidism and CIS in rabbits


South africa babies
South Africa - babies

  • DDT used in homes for malarial control

  • Prof Bornman et al(unpublished –work in progress)

  • DDT linked to testicular abnormalities in baby boys


Example 2 thyroid effects in great lakes wildlife
Example 2Thyroid effects in Great Lakes wildlife

  • In Great Lakes all adult male salmon showed thyroid disruption. Enlarged thyroids – goitre - some ruptured. Effects on thyroid still evident

  • 2001-2004 gulls still have goitre – produce less thyroid hormones.

  • Turtles in Great Lakes reduced thyroid function.


Other species showing altered thyroid function

Babies in 1990 Dutch cohort – thyroid hormone levels correlate with pollutants

The higher dioxin, furan and PCB in milk, the lower maternal total T3 and T4 . Infants have higher plasma-levels of TSH

Alligators in polluted Florida lakes – reduced thyroxine levels.

Florida panther thyroid dysfunction

Polar bears – thyroid hormone levels altered - PCBs

Other species showing altered thyroid function


Thyroid effects in humans
Thyroid effects in humans correlate with pollutants

  • Goitre in Michigan residents

  • PCBs - developmental neurotoxicity = thyroid disruption?

  • In Japan – tripling of the incidence of cretinism 1981-9995 defective thyroid function in foetal life cause dioxin? – other chemicals linked to ED of T


Congenital defects in vertebrate wildlife fish
Congenital defects in Vertebrate wildlife - fish correlate with pollutants

  • Intersex fish – up to 100% of roach in some UK freshwater rivers. VTG.Now found elsewhere in EU.

  • Intersex found in UK marine fish – such as flounder – but less severe.Now found in Seine, Baltic flounder, and severe in swordfish from the Mediterranean

  • MIPs morphologically intermediate papilla syndrome – Sand Gobies.


Congenital defects in vertebrates amphibians
Congenital defects in correlate with pollutants Vertebrates: Amphibians

  • Gonadal dysgenesis and hermaphrodite leopard frogs - atrazine sites USA (Hayes et al. 2003)

  • Intersex in cricket frogs – pop decline - peaked in OC time? (Reeder 2005)

  • Cane Toads – 30% hermaphrodite – atrazine on sugar cane in Florida(Gross)

  • Limb deformities


Congenital defects in reptiles
Congenital defects in Reptiles correlate with pollutants

  • Smaller phallus in alligators.

  • Abnormalities of the testes in alligators

  • Smaller precloacal length (= penis) in snapping turtles - Detroit river

  • Abnormal testes – ovo-testes in red belly turtle in Florida


Congenital defects in mammals mustelids
Congenital defects in Mammals: Mustelids correlate with pollutants

  • Impaired reproduction in otters in EU, and in Great Lakes.

  • Otters in Lower Columbia river had shorter baculums and smaller testes.

  • Eye defects linked with lower vit A

  • Endangered European mink in decline

  • Mink in British Columbia shorter baculum correlating to PCBs


Congenital defects in polar bears and panthers
Congenital defects in Polar Bears and Panthers correlate with pollutants

  • Suspected higher rates of female hermaphroditism in polluted Svalbaard.

  • Many of remaining small population of Florida panthers have undescended testes


Congenital defects in black and brown bears
Congenital defects in Black and Brown Bears correlate with pollutants

  • Retained testes in 11 of 71 black bears in Florida(4 old enough to be considered cryptorchid)(Dunbar 1996)

  • In Alberta Canada – 1988 – reported cases of masculinised females


Congenital defects in mule deer and white tailed deer
Congenital defects in Mule Deer and White Tailed Deer correlate with pollutants

  • Abnormal testes and abnormal antlers in 27 of 116 adult male Mule deer around site on Columbia river USA (Tiller et al.1997)

  • Of 254 white tailed deer from Montana – 67% showed genital developmental abnormalities. (1996-2000) Mis-positioned genitals, undersized scrota, and un-descended testes(Hoy et al. 2002)


Congenital defects in male sitka black tail deer in alaska
Congenital defects in male Sitka Black Tail Deer in Alaska correlate with pollutants

Aliluik peninsula on Kodiak Island

  • 61 out of 94 were bilateral cryptorchid

  • 43 out of 94 had abnormal antlers

  • At least 2 of the 10 scrotal testes examined contained CIS cellsprecursors of seminoma (Veeramanchaneni et al. 2005)


Congenital defects in eland in south africa
Congenital defects in Eland in South Africa correlate with pollutants

  • Focal white gritty areas found in testes of all 11 eland.

  • Vacuolisation of sertoli cells

  • Impaired spermatogenesis

  • Testicular lesions associated with high NP?

  • First evidence of wildlife affected by EDCs in South Africa


Warning for male homo sapiens
Warning for male correlate with pollutantsHomo Sapiens

  • Testicular dysgenesis now seen in many aquatic and terrestrial species.

  • Additive effects known to occur in vivo with anti-androgenic substances(Foster et al. 2000)(Gray et al. 2001)(Silva et al. 2002)

  • Swan 2005 – shows AGD and other effects linked to phthalate metabolites in mothers.

  • Baby boys – half the men their fathers are?


Warning immune suppression in wildlife is widespread
Warning: Immune suppression in wildlife is widespread correlate with pollutants

  • Birds in Gt Lakes - Herring Gulls, Black-crowned Herons, Caspian Terns in (2001) Great Lakes.

  • Snapping Turtles in (2001) in Gt Lakes

  • Loggerhead Turtles (2000/01) from North Carolina

  • Seals (and controlled feeding of seals with fish from polluted Waddon sea depressed immune system


Warning immune suppression in wildlife is widespread cont
Warning: Immune suppression in wildlife is widespread ..cont…

  • High rates of cancer in St Lawrence belugas.

  • Mice fed with fat replaced with beluga fat – show immune suppression

  • Immune suppression very evident in Svalbaard polar bears

  • Immune suppression found in Florida panther


Implications for humans
Implications for humans? ..cont…

  • Discuss – Rice oil - Inuit babies – Dutch cohort. DES children. > old age – autoimmune disease – arthritis.

  • Need to identify chemicals with immunotoxicant and/or ED action

  • Need tighter controls on EDCs

  • Need to bring EDCs under prior authorisation under REACH. Help!


ad