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Catholic Counter-Reformation . Chapter 11. Many New Religious Orders. The Ursulines Religious order for women Established in 1535 Convents for religious education in France & Italy All social classes Became influential. Many New Religious Orders . Society of Jesus VERY IMPORTANT

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Many new religious orders
Many New Religious Orders

  • The Ursulines

    • Religious order for women

    • Established in 1535

    • Convents for religious education in France & Italy

    • All social classes

    • Became influential


Many new religious orders1
Many New Religious Orders

  • Society of Jesus

    • VERY IMPORTANT

    • Kagan: “…. Of various reform groups none was more instrumental in the success of the Counter Reformation…”

    • Founded by Ignatius of Loyola


Many new religious orders2
Many New Religious Orders

  • Jesuits (cont’d)

    • Ignatius of Loyola was wounded in battle against French  read Christian classics during his period of healing. After reading of heroic self sacrifice he underwent a religious conversion and wanted to serve as a soldier of Christ

    • Spiritual Exercises were to build religious and moral self discipline by using mental/emotional exercises to gain mastery over one’s feelings

    • Their goal was uncompromising loyalty to the church in order to win back Protestant converts


Council of trent
Council of Trent

  • 1545 – 1563

  • Popes resisted calling councils due to earlier Conciliar Movement

  • Trent is located in Northern Italy

  • The council spanned 4 papacies

  • Most of the work was completed by high ranking Italian church officials; the laity and lower clergy were not permitted to vote or share in decision making.


Council of trent1
Council of Trent

  • Discipline reforms

    • Churches were to stop the sale of church offices

    • Bishops were forced to live in their diocese and preach regularly

    • Parish priests were to be neatly dressed, better educated, more active among parishioners

    • Priest preparation was enabled by the establishment of seminaries in every diocese.


Council of trent2
Council of Trent

  • Doctrine Reforms

  • NONE!

    • Salvation through good works

    • Authority of tradition

    • 7 sacraments

    • Supported transubstantiation and no cup to the laity


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