Dr Bashir Ahmed Dar Associate professor medicine chinkipora sopore kashmir presently working in malaysia writes on Systemic lupus erythematosus which is a chronic, multisystem, inflammatory disorder of autoimmune etiology, occurring predominantly in young women. Common manifestations may include arthralgias and arthritis,malar and other skin rashes.
By Dr Bashir Ahmed Dar
Associate Professor of Medicine
Chinkipora Sopore Kashmir
SLE is an autoimmune inflammatory disease involving multisystem or multiorgans of the body.
Sex hormone status
Environmental triggers /Immunological factor s
Loss of ‘self-tolerance
Antigen after being broken into peptides/smaller fragments combines with another protein inside the cell called major MHC-complex , and in this combination is brought to the surface of cell to be presented to T-helper cell or B cell
The processed antigens are transported to the surface of the APC, where it binds with MHC (major histocompatibility complex)
This complex (part of a foreign substance and MHC) is now presented to (CD4 T-helper cell ) or CD8 (cytotoxic T cell) which the T-cell receptor (TCR) recognizes and binds to.
The T helper cell role is only to help and not to kill.
The macrophage or B cell also called as antigen presenting cell thus in this way presents small fragment of antigen to CD4 T helper cell or to CD8 T cell (cytotoxic T cell) which the T-cell receptor (TCR) recognizes and binds to.
The T helper cell role is only to help and not to kill, while as CD8 can kill the antigen and the cell that presents it..
As soon as APC combines with T cell , the APC gets activated and secretes following cytokines.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
And other factors that activate lymphocytes and other immune cells to respond to the antigens.
IL-1 also activates endothelial cells and induces stimulation of adhesion molecule expression on endothelial cells.
to binding site
shape of antigen fits
shape of binding site
C = constant
V = variable
1 Cytotoxic T cell binds to infected cell
Infected cellis destroyed