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Development and Energy in Africa. An example of MDG impact assessment: MFP in Mali – UNDP study. Warning!. We will not restrict ourselves in DEA to MDG impact This is just an example There are shortcomings and limitations But it illustrates a possible starting point.

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Development and energy in africa

Development and Energy in Africa

An example of MDG impact assessment:

MFP in Mali – UNDP study


Warning
Warning!

  • We will not restrict ourselves in DEA to MDG impact

  • This is just an example

  • There are shortcomings and limitations

  • But it illustrates a possible starting point


Achieving the millennium development goals the role of energy services undp 2005
Achieving the Millennium Development Goals: The role of energy services – UNDP 2005

  • case studies from Brazil, Mali and the Philippines

  • focus on Mali – the Multifunctional Platform

  • How does the MFP impact on 5 of the MDGs?

  • MFPs in 12 villages


The Multifunctional Platform supports a energy services – UNDP 2005simple diesel engine that can power different tools : cereal grinding mills, de-huskers, oil presses, joinery and carpentry tools …

Engine

De-husker

Oil press

Grinding mill

Saws…

Battery charging


Example: Mali Multifunctional Platform energy services – UNDP 2005

Contributions to achieving

MDG Goals and Targets

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

  • Increased, diversified income for women: greater productivity in agro processing; more time and energy for in income-generating activities

  • Increased, diversified income for men

  • Increased and more diversified food production

  • Income to purchase food in food deficit areas


Example: Mali Multifunctional Platform energy services – UNDP 2005

Contributions to achieving

MDG Goals and Targets

Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education

  • Increased school attendance as less child labour is needed

  • Increased income to cover schooling costs

  • More girls going to school


Example: Mali Multifunctional Platform energy services – UNDP 2005

Contributions to achieving

MDG Goals and Targets

Goal 3: Promote gender equality, empower women

  • Reduced girl-specific labour leads to higher educational performance, attendance for girls

  • Women’s increased leverage as owners and managers of modern energy-based enterprises

  • More time for rest, physical and mental recuperation essential for learning activities


Example: Mali Multifunctional Platform energy services – UNDP 2005

Contributions to achieving

MDG Goals and Targets

Goal 5: Improve maternal health

  • Improved access tohealth services because of increased income

  • Reduce workloads contributing to improved health

  • Substitute inefficient traditional biomass fuels and reduce indoor air pollution


Example: Mali Multifunctional Platform energy services – UNDP 2005

Contributions to achieving

MDG Goals and Targets

Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability

  • Cleaner energy services can encourage a better management of natural resources, including better water quality


Can this be quantified and documented

Can this be quantified and documented? energy services – UNDP 2005


Impacts of mfp
Impacts of MFP energy services – UNDP 2005


Time savings impacts on mdgs

Energy Service: Motive Power energy services – UNDP 2005

Greater Productivity in Agro-processing

Time Savings

Increased Income Generating Opportunities

Increased Rice Production and Consumption

Better Educational Opportunities for Girls

Better Health Opportunities for Women

MDG 1

MDG 2

MDG 3

MDG 4

MDG 5

Time savings – impacts on MDGs

Multifunctional Platform


Time saved grinding cereals
Time saved grinding cereals energy services – UNDP 2005


Time saving
Time saving energy services – UNDP 2005

  • grinding cereals + dehusking rice

  • average time saving 2.5 hours per day


Mdg 1 poverty reduction
MDG 1: Poverty reduction energy services – UNDP 2005

  • increased revenue generation

  • of 127 women interviewed, 89 (70%) reported increase in revenues after introduction of the MFP

  • average annual increase $68 per woman

  • rural Mali average per capita income from agriculture is $122

  • significant increase


Other mdgs
Other MDGs energy services – UNDP 2005

  • similar information and impacts for impacts on the other MDGs: Education, Gender Equality, Health

  • e.g girl/boy ratio in primary school


Conclusions of the study
Conclusions of the study energy services – UNDP 2005

1. Modern energy services can can make significant contribution to improving livelihood of rural poor in:

  • poverty alleviation

  • education

  • gender equality

  • health


Conclusions of the study continued
Conclusions of the study (continued) energy services – UNDP 2005

2. Lessons for policy

  • Increase the role of rural energy services in macro-scale/national poverty reduction strategies

  • Couple provision of energy services with productive activities

  • Reduce gender bias of rural energy poverty

  • Focus on modernizing energy services for food processing, agriculture cooking and rural enterprises to maximise the impact of energy interventions


But ….. energy services – UNDP 2005

  • How reliable is the methodology?

  • Are the results convincing enough to draw these policy lessons?

  • Does it provide an example of an approach that can be replicated for other energy interventions?

  • Main weakness: It says little about the causal links between the intervention and the MDG impact.



Analytical limitations
Analytical Limitations each installation (i.e. village) separately, collect data on income increases, production, school attendance

  • Small sample size (data from 12 villages, 1267 women) out of 394 platforms serving 80,000 women. Therefore caution to be exercised in generalising the results.

  • No control group: study does not control for overall development of villages without MFPs.

  • Unrepresentative sample: villages concentrated in one area

  • Low explanatory power: does not control for other non-MFP factors, e.g. educational or health reforms, that may have contributed to these results


We must consider these limitations in designing the Assessment Framework so that it can be generalised to different kinds of projects, different institutional and national settings, etc.


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