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Remote Underwater Sampling and Aqueduct Monitoring Technology: An Example of Linking Current Sensor Technology with Innovative Delivery Systems- An Integral Part of an Early Warning System-Now Christopher J. Owen President and COO www.apprisetech.com. The Risk for Water Infrastructure:

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The risk for water infrastructure

Remote Underwater Sampling and Aqueduct Monitoring Technology: An Example of Linking Current Sensor Technology with Innovative Delivery Systems-

An Integral Part of an Early Warning System-Now

Christopher J. Owen

President and COO

www.apprisetech.com


The risk for water infrastructure

  • The Risk for Water Infrastructure:

  • 1996 President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCIP) determines water infrastructure as highly vulnerable to a range of potential attacks.

  • Effects of threat touch every citizen in the US with over 27 billion gallons of water pumped every day.

  • The Broad Spectrum of Risks:

  • Maybe natural or malevolent.

  • Threats maybe high-tech or low-tech.

  • Executed by organized groups or loose networks.

  • May use exotic or common chemical or biological compounds.


The risk for water infrastructure

  • Results of a Successful Attacks:

  • Widespread panic.

  • Significant economic impact.

  • Loss of public confidence in the US water supply infrastructure.

  • Distribution Monitoring is Key-However Source Water Attack Has Broad Reaching Impacts-Question to Water Operators Not Monitoring Their Systems:

  • Public will Demand Treatment or Disposal

  • Public Trust will be Tarnished

  • For Counterfeit-Threats They Are Most Successful if Monitoring programs are Limited or Do Not Exist.

  • Are you prepared to empty or treat a five, 10 or 15

  • million-gallon finished water reservoir to prove to

  • the public that it is safe to drink the water?


The risk for water infrastructure

Bio-terrorism and America’s Water

Key Reference Documents

In December of 1999 the following industry report outlined the need for an Early Warning System and potential solution criteria...

International Life Science Institute (ILSI) Workshop Recommendations Published

in a Report Titled:

EARLY WARNING MONITORING TO DETECT HAZARDOUS

EVENTS IN WATER SUPPLIES

October 10, 2001-United States House of Representatives-Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure-Subcommittee on Water Resources and the Environment

House Testimony of Jeffrey J. Danneels (Sandia National Laboratories)

“Time delays with sampling and analysis are key drivers for the need for real-time

monitoring capabilities.”

In 2001 the FBI issued this warning…

“As long as enemies of the United States of America exist,

terrorism could strike a US water supply unless

steps are taken to prevent such action.”


The risk for water infrastructure

ILSI Industry Report On Early Warning Systems and Statements of Jeffrey Danneels: Sandia National Laboratories Report to the US House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure-Subcommittee on Water Resources and the Environment

EARLY WARNING MONITORING SYSTEMS:

Goals and requirements…

  • The “Tall Order” For Early Warning Systems:

  • Provide Warning in Sufficient Time for Action

  • Integration of Multiple Sensors in a Modular or Expandable Installation

  • Affordable

  • Can Be Mass Produced

  • Requires Low Skill and Training to Operate

  • Covers ALL Potential Threats

  • Gives Minimal False Positive and Negative Responses

  • Robust, Reproducible, and Verifiable

  • Allows Remote Operation

  • Functions Year-Around

  • Turns Data Into Knowledge

  • Can be Networked or Installed in Multiple Locations


The risk for water infrastructure

A Brief History: Technology and

Water Quality Monitoring

  • Surface Water Quality Monitoring: A coupling of technology-evolution to apply current sensor technology in innovative ways...

    • 1800-1900’s - Chemical testing

    • Early 1900’s - First sensors developed for lab use

    • 1960’s - First submersible pH electrode

    • 1970’s - Data storage - Trends vs. Isolated Data Points

    • Mid 1980’s - Unattended systems using dataloggers

    • - Buoy systems with sensor packages

    • Late 1980’s- One-way radio telemetry systems used

    • - First solar-powered systems

    • 1990’s-- Digital technology

    • - Unattended remote data telemetry

    • Late 1990’s- Interactive Sensor Delivery Systems

      • Development of Variable Buoyancy Systems (VBS)


The risk for water infrastructure

Sensor Solutions to Threats:

New Sensor Technology for Chemical and Biological Agents

vs.

Applying Current Sensors and Related Advanced Sensor Delivery Technology in Innovative Ways

Inclusive Approaches

  • New Sensor Designs: The need for time, money and broad threat sensitivity.

  • New Sensor Development Advantages: Specific and sensitive to specific treats

  • New Sensor Development Disadvantages: Costly to develop, verify and validate for field deployment

  •  Not available currently (takes years to decades to bring to market)

  •  Requires complex design for multiple contaminate functionality or

  •  Requires multiple sensors to cover the wide spectrum of possible threats

  • New Sensor Challenges in

  • EARLY WARNING MONITORING SYSTEMS:

  • Goals and requirements… Integration of multiple sensors in a modular or expandable installation (unknown).  Affordable (development costs are high).

  •  Can be mass produced (unknown).

  •  Covers ALL potential threats (quantification of a threat is costly; multiple threats is more costly).

  •  Robust, reproducible, and verifiable (no track record for robustness and reproducibility) Turns data into knowledge (unknown).

  •  Network Ability (Unknown)


The risk for water infrastructure

Sensor Solutions to Threats:

New Sensor Technology For Chemical and Biological Agents

vs.

Applying Current Sensors and Related Advanced Sensor Delivery Technology In Innovative Ways

Inclusive Approaches

  • Applying Current Sensors and Related Technology in Innovative Ways...

  • Advantages Inexpensive (currently produced in mass quantity).

  •  Long track record for performance (robust, reproducible and verifiable).

  •  Canary in coal mine approach - measures effect making it broad spectrum in sensitivity to a variety of threats.

  •  Long record for ease of use (long running familiarity with the form and function of the sensors).

  •  Data turned to knowledge (current sensor data has a long record as used as predictors for the health of the system that can be applied to Early Warning Systems).

  • Disadvantages Not specific to individual chemical or biological threats (still requires select sampling to quantify the specific contaminate).

  • Challenges to the Innovative

  • Application of Current Sensor Technology

  • EARLY WARNING MONITORING SYSTEMS:

  • Goals and requirements…  Provide warning in sufficient time for action.

  •  Integration of multiple sensors in a modular or expandable installation.

  •  Allows remote operation.


The risk for water infrastructure

  • Example of a Remote Platform for Effective Deployment of Current Sensor Technology-Merging Technology to Address the Needs of Managers: Variable Buoyancy Systems (RUSSTM) Current Applications

  • Treatment Process Optimization, General Management and Monitoring

  • Forecast Modeling

  • Compliance Monitoring

  • Early Warning Monitoring of Harmful Events

    Currently in Use Across the US, in Korea and Israel.


The risk for water infrastructure

Example of How a Remote Platform Works to Integrate Current Sensor Technology into Early Warning System Requirements

A Successful System Contains The Following:

Flotation Module

On-Board Computer

Power System

Telemetry Module

Result: Remote Operation of Sensor Package (Bi-Directional Communications), Movement of Sensor Package to Preprogrammed Depths and Generation of Extensive Data Sets for Water Quality Managers for Use in Process Optimization and Early Warning Systems in Near Real-Time. Networkability for large geographic coverage.


The risk for water infrastructure

Example of How a Remote Platforms Works to Integrate Current Sensor Technology into Early Warning System Requirements (Aqueduct Monitoring System)


The risk for water infrastructure

Example of How a Remote Platforms Work to Integrate Current Sensor Technology into Early Warning System Requirements (Aqueduct Monitoring System)

  • Key Components

  • Secure Dedicated Phone line

  • Central Control CPU

  • Flow Meter for Pump Fail Notification

  • Expandable Sensor Reservoir

  • Refrigerated Sample Archive

  • Key Design Features

  • High Resolution Data for Predictive Models

  • Sensor Trigger Limits for Archived Sampling

  • On Demand Sample Trigger

  • Redundant Status Notification


The risk for water infrastructure

Current Uses of this Technology: Water Utilities

  • First used as a Process Control tool...

  • Turbidity Events - Early warning for chemical treatment and plume transport modeling.

  • Algal Bloom Detection - taste & odor problems

  • Deep Water Withdrawal Characterization - Measuring ReDox to predict problematic mineral-rich content in source water (minimize mineral build up in process control)

  • Source Water Characterization for multiple source blending

  • Effects of Hypolimnetic Oxygenation Systems (active management activity for algal control)

  • Vertical Layer Assessment of Reservoir Source Water - for intake management measuring temperature and density effects

  • Discharge Plume Assessment


The risk for water infrastructure

Using Profiling Buoy and Aqueduct Monitoring Technology, Joined with Current Sensor Technology as an Integral Component of

Early Warning Systems...

  • Profiling systems generate sufficient data to develop predictive models that can identify natural occurrences from unnatural as early warning of contamination (technology based “Canary In the Coal Mine”).

  • Profile data is used for toxic transport models to estimate “time of arrival” at critical infrastructure.

  • Profiling systems are ideal platforms for additional (or new) technology.

  • Remote profiling buoy systems work 24/7 and deliver near-real time data about water events.

  • Profiling systems use common commercially available sensors and probes that measure primary water characteristics.


The risk for water infrastructure

How does this design fit the “EARLY WARNING MONITORING SYSTEM:

Goals and requirements”…

Remote Profiling Buoy Systems, Using Current Sensor Technology, Meets the Recommended Defined Criteria for Early Warning Systems:

  • Provides warning in sufficient time for action

    • Profiling and aqueduct systems are currently being used to establish Near- Real Time measurement for transport models (Turbidity and Toxic Transport).

  • Covers all potential threats

    • Data establish baseline biological and chemical data sets and establish upper and lower control limits and related risk response triggers (Canary in a Coal Mine).

  • Cost is affordable

    • Use proven technology for profiling buoy systems.

    • Use standard “Off the Shelf” sensors resulting in low cost immediate implementation.

  • Requires minimal skill and training

    • Systems that utilizes current staff for O&M -allowing for better allocation of resources for data interpretation.

  • Gives minimal false positive or negative responses.

    • Proven sensor technology allows for minimization of false positives and false negatives.

  • Is robust

    • Over 50 systems are deployed in an array of environments.

  • Is reproducible and verifiable

    • System validated by the US EPA EMPACT Program. However needs more data.

  • Allows remote operation and functions year-round

    • Combination of wireless and landline systems for Near-Real Time Data.


The risk for water infrastructure

As new sensors for biological and chemical "signatures" are commercialized, they will require an operating platform.

Remote data acquisition systems are ideal platforms for new and

emerging sensor technologies.

Most remote systems use standard communication protocols. New sensor developments will likely use a standard protocol and therefore can easily be integrated into buoy or other remote platforms with minimal cost for “real-time” assessment of the health of the aquatic system.


The risk for water infrastructure

Allow managers and operators valuable time to be proactive instead of reactive in terms of treatment and awareness.

Predictive capabilities- differentiate between natural and unnatural occurrences to minimize harm.

Great expansion capabilities- use remote platforms to integrate new technology as they become available.

Predictive Models: A key element of an Early Warning System: Joining Current-Inexpensive Sensor Technology with Delivery Platforms to Generate Data Required for Proactive Models


The risk for water infrastructure

Data Visualization Tools

Successful Early Warning Systems Must Present Water Quality Data in a Variety of Ways for Timely Response to Change


The risk for water infrastructure

Data Visualization Tools

Allow Users to Present Data in a Visual User-Friendly

Format Turning “DATA INTO KNOWLEDGE”.


The risk for water infrastructure

EARLY WARNING MONITORING SYSTEMS:

Conclusion: A need to allocate resources to applying current sensors and related technology in innovative ways - best Early Warning Solution for managers and the communities they serve.

  • Best Way to Approximate the Tall Order: Addressing industry needs and public protection…

  • Provide warning in sufficient time for action integration of multiple.

  • Sensors in a modular or expandable installation.

  • Affordable and can be mass produced.

  • Requires minimal skills and training to operate.

  • Covers ALL potential threats. (???????)

  • Gives minimal false positive and negative responses. (Limitation Known)

  • Robust, reproducible and verifiable.

  • Allows remote operation and functions year-around (Most of the Time)

  • Turns data into knowledge.

  • Can be networked or installed in multiple locations.

Achieving Public Water Safety NOW….and Expanding for the Future.


The risk for water infrastructure

4802 Oneota Street

Duluth, MN 55807 USA

www.apprisetech.com


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